The Centre for Information Technology and Development has on 30 th November, 2022
conducted the 21 st ICT Quiz competition for Secondary Schools in Kano State. The ICT quiz that
has been conducted annually aimed to explore the major issues teachers and students
encounter in ICT and computing education at school, stimulate the students and teachers to
think more deeply about the IT career and serve as an advocacy tool for policy makers to
provide an enabling ICTs policies and basic infrastructures to secondary schools. For years
CITAD has been conducting the quiz in one of the tertiary institutions in the state. This is to
serve as an eye opener to the participating secondary school students and familiarize them to
higher institutions environment. This year’s ICT quiz took place at Main Auditorium, Yusuf
Maitama Sule University, City Campus, Kano. About 50 senior secondary schools have been
invited for this year’s quiz competition but 36 schools showed up. The schools were: New Girl’s
Science & Technical College, GGSS Aisami, Dawakin Tofa Science College, S.A.S Kano, GSTC Dala,
GTC Sani Abacha, GSS Kofar Nasarawa, GTC Kano, GGSS Sumaila, GDSS Kundum Sumaila, GGSS
Janbulo, Prof. Hafsat Abdullahi Umar Ganduje, Mukhtar Adnan DSCK, Governors College, GGSS
Kabo, GGSS Dorayi Karama, GGASS Bichi, GSS Dantube, First Ladies College, Kano, and GSCS
Commercial. Others included MTGSTC, GSS Dala, GSS Unguwar Gano, GGSS Jogana, GGSS
Maryam Abacha, Sani Bello Science College DKD, GTC Warawa, GGSS Bulukiya, KUST Staff

Secondary School Wudil, GSS Yada Kwari, GTC Ungogo, GSS Ganduje, GGSS Dorayi Babba, GGSS
Zakirai, GGSS Bichi and GSS Shekara, Kano
In his welcome remark, the Executive Director, Centre for Information Technology and
Development (CITAD) Malam YZ Ya’u who was represented by the Training Coordinator, Malam
Ahmad Abdullahi Yakasai said that CITAD uses the quiz as a tool for raising awareness on ICT
among teachers and students, encourage the study of computer education and testing ICT
knowledge among secondary school students. He added that this year’s ICT quiz is unique
looking at the number of participating schools and for the first time holding at Yusuf Maitama
Sulr University, Kano. He added that much have been done for the past 20 years inculcating the
value of ICT knowledge among secondary school students. He finally announced the prizes to
be won at the end of this year’s ICT quiz. The prizes were as follows:
1 st position: Laptop computer, printer, wall clock, 2 dozen of exercise books, 2 bags and 2 slots
for ICT scholarship for the participating students
2 nd Place Position: Laptop, wall clock, 2 dozen of exercise books, 2 bags and 2 slots for ICT
scholarship for the participating students
3 rd Place: refurbished desktop computer, wall clock, 2 dozen of exercise books, 2 bags and 2
slots for ICT scholarship for the participating students.
Best Teacher: Plasma TV
All Participating School: Certificate of Attendance for teachers and the students
Dignitaries present during the ICT quiz competition included Prof Amina Salihi Bayero, DVC
(Academic), Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kano, Dr. Sani Danjuma, HOD Computer Science,
Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kano, Prof Tijjani Salihi Bichi, Kano University of Science and
Technology, Wudil, Malam Sani Abdurrahman Naruwa, NITDA, Malam Aminu Idris, Kano State
Senior Secondary School (KSSSMB), Kano, Malam Auwal Mukhtar, Kano State Senior Secondary
School (KSSSMB), Kano and Malam Musa Isa, Science and technology School Board, Kano. In his
goodwill message the Vice Chancellor, Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kano who served as the
chief host and ably represented by Prof Amina Salihi Bayero thanked the organizers for

selecting their institution to host the quiz competition out of the number of institutions in the
state. She said her both wanted to be attend the competition by himself but due to certain
reasons beyond his control could not be able to attend. Prof. Salihi assured the organizers and
the participating schools all necessary support during the competition. She informed that ICT is
one of the programs that received number of students seeking for admission every year. Yusuf
Maitama Sule has been offering BSc Information Communication Technology and BSc Computer
Science. Recently, National University Commission has granted permission for the university to
start offering BSc Software Engineering and BSc Server Security. She emphasized that soon the
university will establish faculty of computing offering many computer related courses. She
finally welcomed CITAD and participating schools on behalf of the university community.
Malam Musa Isa, deputy director Science and Technical School Board represented the
Executive Director Science Board at the quiz competition. In his message, said that CITAD
deserved to be applause for organizing the quiz for the past 20 years. He hoped that the
organizers will not relax for a second in making students excel in ICT career. He extended the
warm greeting of his boss to the organizers, the students and the teaching staff who he
described as backbone of the competition. Malam Aminu Idris represented Executive Secretary
Kano State Senior Secondary School Board, Kano. He urged the students to make sure that they
have a virtue of hardworking because it’s the formular of successes. He said that the Executive
Secretary wished them the participants success not only for this quiz competition but in the
entire endeavor in life.
Dr. Sani Danjuma, HOD Computer Science served as the Chief Judge at quiz. He said that as a
Chief Judge, he must guide and ensure the smooth running of the quiz. He then announced the
following rules and regulations for the quiz competition.
 There are three rounds for each session
 Each school will answer one question per round
 Each question carries 2 marks
 There is only one attempt, think before voicing out the answer
 Participants can discuss silently among themselves for the correct answer

 Only one participant should voice out the answer
 No bonus question will be answered
 Participants should voice out the answer loudly before 20 seconds
 In case of bracket additional question would be selected to clear the bracket
 No student should participate in two consecutive years
 Anybody found giving leakage to the participant both the school and the person would
be disqualified and will be reported to the ministry for further action
 The school are divided into two groups
 From each group three schools with highest scores will qualified for the final
 The six qualified schools would run the final session from which 1 st , 2 nd 3 rd position will

The first round of the competition featured 20 schools in the system of first come first to serve
basis. The schools were as follows: New Girl’s Science & Technical College, GGSS Aisami,
Dawakin Tofa Science College, S.A.S Kano, GSTC Dala, GTC Sani Abacha, GSS Kofar Nasarawa,
GTC Kano, GGSS Sumaila, GDSS Kundum Sumaila, GGSS Janbulo, Prof. Hafsat Abdullahi Umar
Ganduje, Mukhtar Adnan DSCK, Governors College, GGSS Kabo, GGSS Dorayi Karama, GGASS
Bichi, GSS Dantube, First Ladies College, Kano, and GSCS Commercial. Interestingly, no school
has scored zero in the first round of the competition. GGSS Aisami, GTC Sani Abacha, GGSS
Janbulo, Governors College, GGSS Kabo, GGSS Dorayi Karama, GGASS Bichi and GSS Dantube
answered one question and score 2 marks each. GGSS Sumaila, First Ladies College, Kano and
GSCS Commercial answered 2 questions and scored 4 marks each. New Girl’s Science and
Technical College, S.A.S Kano, GSTC Dala, GSS Kofar Nassarawa, GDSS Kundum Sumaila, and
Mukhtar Adnan DSCK answered all their 3 questions and scored 6 marks each. Because of the
tally, the Chief Judge announced that there should be additional round for the schools that
scored 6 marks to clear the bracket. New Girl’s Science & Technical College, GSTC Dala and
Mukhtar Adnan DSCK couldn’t and answer the question given to them at the additional round,
they scored zero each. Another round still had to be given to S.A.S Kano, GSS Kofar Nassarawa,
GTC Kano and GDSS Kundum Sumaila. S.A.S Kano, GSS Kofar Nassarawa and GDSS Kundum

Sumaila answered the question given to the and qualified to be at the final session of the
The second round featured 16 schools as follows: MTGSTC, GSS Dala, GSS Unguwar Gano, GGSS
Jogana, GGSS Maryam Abacha, Sani Bello Science College DKD, GTC Warawa, GGSS Bulukiya,
KUST Staff Secondary School Wudil, GSS Yada Kwari, GTC Ungogo, GSS Ganduje, GGSS Dorayi
Babba, GGSS Zakirai, GGSS Bichi and GSS Shekara, Kano. GGSS Bulukiya was the only school that
couldn’t answer any question in the entire competition and scored zero. GSS Unguwar Gano,
GGSS Jogana, GSS Yada Kwari, GTC Ungogo, GSS Ganduje, GGSS Dorayi Babba, GGSS Zakirai and
GSS Shekara, Kano answered one question and scored 2 marks each. MTGSTC, GSS Dala, Sani
Bello Science College, Dawakin Kudu and GTC Warawa answered 2 questions and scored 4
marks each. GGSS Maryam Abacha and KUST Staff Secondary School, Wudil answered 3
questions and scored 6 marks each. This means that GGSS Maryam Abacha and KUST Staff
Secondary School, Wudil that answered 3 questions and scored 6 marks each qualified to the
final session automatically. For the MTGSTC, GSS Dala, Sani Bello Science College, Dawakin
Kudu and GTC Warawa that answered 2 questions and scored 4 marks each must be given
another round in order to have one school that join the 2 schools with 6 marks each in the final
session. GSS Dala and GTC Warawa couldn’t make it, scored zero. MTGSTC and Sani Bello
Science College Dawakin Kudu battled again to clear the tally of 2 marks scored each in the
additional round. Sani Bello Science College answered the question given to them and joined
GGSS Maryam Abacha and KUST Staff Secondary School that emerged winners in this group to
the final session.
Subsequently, Malam Ali Sabo, CITAD Communication and Campaign Officer who served as
Master of the Ceremony (MC) asked the participants and the audience to go for lunch and rest
for 30 minutes and come back for the final session. The final session featured the following
schools: GSS Kofar Nassarawa, GDSS Kundum Sumaila, GGSS Maryam Abacha, KUST Staff
Secondary School and Sani Bello Science College. GSS Kofar Nasarawa couldn’t answer any
question and scored zero. GDSS Kundum Sumaila and KUST Staff Secondary School answered
one qyestions and scored 2 marks each. S.A.S answered 2 questions and scored 4 marks. While
GGSS Maryam Abacha and Sani Bello Science College, Dawakin Kudu answered all the 3

questions and scored 6 marks each. The result has shown that GSS Kofar Nassarawa that
couldn’t answer any question and scored zero and GDSS Kundum Sumaila and KUST Staff
Secondary School that answered one question and scored 2 marks each couldn’t make it. S.A.S
Kano that answered 2 questions and scored mark has automatically won the 3 rd position of the
21 st ICT competition. Still there was a bracket between GGSS Maryam Abacha and Sani Bello
Science College, Dawakin Kudu that answered all the 3 questions and scored 6 marks each.
They should compete in view of having the 1 st and 2 nd position. It was so excited to see the two
schools answering the additional round given to them. It took the two schools 4 added rounds
before GGSS Maryam Abacha scored zero in the last chance. This specified categorically that
Sani Bello Science College that answered the last chance won the 1 st position of 21 st ICT quiz
competition and GGSS Maryam Abacha came second.
The Vice Chancellor, Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kano who was represented by Prof. Amina
Salihi Bayero, DVC Academic helped to present the prizes of the first-place position to Sani Bello
Science College that emerged victorious for the first-place position. Former DVC Admin, Prof.
Tijjani Saleh Bichi presented the prizes of second-place position to GGSS Maryam Abacha that
emerged victorious for second-place position. Malam Musa Isa who represented the Executive
Secretary, Science and Technical School Board presented the prizes of 3 rd -place position School
for Arabic Studies (SAS) that won the 3 rd position.
Giving his remarks Prof. Tijjani Sale Bichi, former DVC Admin, Kano University of Science and
Technology (KUST), Wudil congratulated the winners of the competition and appreciated the
effort of CITAD in doing great Job. He then finally expressed his worries about the poor
performance of two secondary schools from his home town.
A floor of comments and observations were opened finally to allow the students, the teachers
and the general audience to make contribution. Malam Isa Musa from Science Board advised
that the quiz should add subjective questions (fill in the blank) to expand the quiz. Abdulyasar
Yahaya Musa a student from GSS Kofar Nassarawa expressed his appreciation on the
performance of the participants and offered his advice to have a written form next time.

Mu’azzam Salisu from GTC Warawa also appreciated the members of the high table and the
organizers of the program and congratulate the winners.
Malam Haruna Adamu, CITAD made the vote of thanks


DATE: 27th MAY 2022
Centre for information Technology and Development (CITAD) is a capacity building civil
society organization whose activities covers research, advocacy, training and publicity in all
areas of ICTs. It is geared towards promoting digital inclusion and positioning young people and
women to leverage on information technology for a just society.
Children's day is annually observed in Nigeria on May 27. Statistics has shown that about 42%
of the Nigerian population are children and 1/3 of children aged from 6-14 don't go to schools.
Many children leave schools for different purposes and children's rights are often violated on a
daily basis. More also, 70% of children live below the poverty line. Children are also exposed to
kidnapping, street trading, lack of qualitative education, malnutrition and a host of others.
Due to the above statistics, Centre for information Technology and Development (CITAD) with
funding from Action Aid Nigeria organized a memorable children’s day celebration at FCT rural
communities of Kuchibuyi and Guto in Bwari area council of the FCT.
The objectives of the day’s celebration include: To promote and celebrate children's rights, to
reflect the importance of Children's education, to spread awareness for the parents and ask to
give them an environment where they can thrive and to discourage differentiation between a girl
and boy child. The International Children Day which is celebrated every May 27, aims to create
awareness on their rights, issues that affect children, importance of education and help us
appreciate that they are the future of our societies.
To begin the activity, CITAD programme Officer Yesmin Salako introduced the team to the
community and the community leader, explaining the purpose of the day’s celebration and why
the communities were picked. After which she spoke to the children on the importance of
education in their lives and career paths they want to seek in the future, most of the children were
thrilled listening to the words of advice offered to them. After which fun activities began, to
include dancing, playing and running as it was a fun filled event.

CITAD celebrated 2022 children day by planting hundred (100) tree seedlings (mango, orange,
cashew, and guava) were planted together with hundred children in response to climate change
and contribute to increasing Nigeria’s forest cover. The children are engaged in the tree planting
exercise, in order to make them love and protect trees providing an opportunity for community
engagement and empowerment which improves the quality of life in the neighborhood. The
conservation efforts and efforts to reduce climate change should be extended to the younger
Highlight of the activity include children fun activities like dancing and playing, after which 100
trees were planted in the community by the children together with their community leader and
CITAD team. The activity was successful because all the hundred trees were planted
successfully and children fun fair, dancing competition was all a success and there was increased
protection and love for trees by the children in the community. The leaders of the communities
took the lead in the tree planting exercise, they were happy CITAD visited their community, to
encourage them on their special day, while admonishing them to be conservative. The leaders
also requested the children to love and protect the trees, as it was a great opportunity.
To bring the day to a close, Mubarak Ekute gave closing remarks by appreciating the community
leader and community facilitators as well as the children who made the day colorful with their
participation and co-operation, as it would not have been possible without them. He also advised
the community to see that most of the plants are watered daily for proper growth, as that was the
purpose of planting the trees.
Most of the children were excited to celebrate the day in a different way and also plant trees in
their surrounding by themselves. As a child at Guto community, Saudat said “I feel happy about
the children’s day because it is my day. I am happy to plant a tree by myself because I have
never planted before”
Speaking to another child, Abu Sufyan also said “I am happy because it is children’s day and I &
my friends planted orange and mango trees in my school. I will always water the tree”.

Challenges; Celebrating the Day in two different communities was tedious, as the time was not
enough to cover the second community extensively.

CITAD Presents Prize To Winners of Report A Projects Competition

By Rabiu Musa

HOTPEN – The Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) has presented prizes to winners in the 3rd round of its ‘Report a Project Competition’.

The Centre said the champions were honored to encouraged them continue contributing their best for the sustainable growth and development of the society.

The program, according to the Centre is in support from MacArthur Foundation and is targeted at encouraging students from tertiary institutions to report abandoned or poorly executed projects in their respective communities.

In his remarks, the Executive Director of the Centre Dr. Y.Z Ya’u said the project was in line with the pursuit for a collective action to demand accountability from the government at all levels.

The Executive Director who was represented by the Centre’s Campaigns and Communications Officer, Mal. Ali Sabo explained that the idea is an accelerated step to holding governments accountable for its actions in the spirit of transparency as a critical element of good governance and improving citizens’ livelihood.

The winner of the competition, Mr. Taneem Garga, from Plateau state was presented with a Computer, while the first runner-up Ishaq Abdullahi Shehu from Kano Municipal got Huawei Nova and the second runner-up Ridwan Garba from Gwale local L.G, Kano state was presented with Huawei Y6 Pro.

Report of A Two Day Training On The Use of Social Media for Accountability

In our contemporary societies, social media and social networking sites continue to permeate every aspect of our social and national lives. Hence, the dire need for training and re-training of youths to use the social media professionally.
Sequel to the above, the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) conducted a two day social media for accountability training in Kano South Senotorial District Headquarter, Rano local Government Area, Kano state.
The training, themed; “Social Media for Accountability”, allowed the participants to acquire relevant skills on the use of social media for accountability and the areas of deploying various platforms for networking, political participation, holding leaders accountable, content creation, entrepreneurship, and a host of others.
The Centre Communication Officer, Ali Sabo revealed that the Centre intends to train youth in Kano state on the ethics of using the social media to promote accountability, fighting corruption and consolidate democracy.
Sabo, said today social media gives the ordinary citizens avenue to express their opinions about governance as it concerns them, like every technology requires certain skills for professional utilization without which will lead to a the abuse of the platforms.
He further stated that youth can use social media to bring about positive changes and reforms in the country. Also social media can be used to hold government officials accountable for their action which in normal circumstances cannot be done. He added.
The aim of the training is to educate the youth on how to use social media effectively and to also use it as a tool for holding government accountable.

Report of Sensitization Lecture On Gender-Based Violence at Saadatu Rimi College of Education Kano

Every March 8, Nigerian women join the rest of the world to celebrate the International Women’s Day (IWD). In Kano state, A Non-Governmental Organization working to Prevent Gender-Based Violence in Kano,

the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD), organized a one-day sensitization lecture on Gender-based violence to the students of Kano State College of Education (Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education), to commemorate the 2022 IWD.
International Women’s Day, celebrated annually on March 8 – is a day that commemorates the social, political and economic achievements of women as well as creating awareness on issues that affect women and girls and to proffer solutions to them.
The theme for this year’s International Women’s Day is: “Gender equality today for a sustainable tomorrow.”

This year’s campaign is represented by the #BreakTheBias hashtag and calls on people towork towards a world that is equitable, inclusive, and free from bias and discrimination against women.
Zainab Aminu who is Gender Officer of CITAD, presented a paper titled “Concept of Gender-Based Violence” she congratulated women all over the world on the day, reminded them of the need to use the occasion to create awareness on sexual and gender based violence issues with the aim of finding a lasting solution.
According to her, the sensitization lecture was a call to action for all stakeholders on the mission, to eliminate all forms of gender-based violence in Kano state.
It is important to raising awareness and sensitization, prioritizing access to safe learning environment,and changing negative norms and harmful beliefs about gender roles that reinforce the ugly practice, Zainab said.
She added that Gender-based violence is a universal problem, and the solution to the problem requires awareness, sensitization and all stakeholders to work together in addressing the problem.
Miss Zainab went further to say the scale of sexual gender-based violence, violence against women and
girls and discrimination is alarming. The spike, pattern, trends, and the consequences of these forms of
violence impact negatively on individuals, families, communities, and the state in general".
On his remarks, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) Boss, Kano Zonal office, Mal. Abdullahi
expressed that people who experience gender violence suffered from different human rights violations –
like right to life, freedom from torture and degrading treatment, freedom from discrimination and the
right to safety and security.
He added that NHRC is using a range of innovative measures to defend the rights of women and girls in
its campaign to end sexual and gender based violence in Nigeria.

Abdullahi added that in promoting awareness, the NHRC is supporting the production of ‘State of
Human Rights’, a weekly television programme that covers key human rights issues and progress made
so far in Nigeria, as well as increasing their presence on social media. View clips from ‘State of Human
Rights’ on Twitter.
He also urged parents, religious institutions, community members and the media to encourage victims
to speak out on cases of abuse or violence.
Dr. Bashir Sani, who is the Director Guidance and Counseling of the college said that Sa’adatu Rimi
College of Education had well-articulated and clear rules and regulations.
He explained that the rules and regulations provided an environment that was safe, non-discriminatory,
non-exploitative and free from harassment and sexual assault.
He also urged the participants to use the knowledge learned during the session and give same to their
On his part, the Dean, students affairs of the College, Malam Rabi'u Muhammad said that the college is
ready to partner with CITAD to sensitize students on all matters pertaining to women and young girls.
He also asked CITAD to re-organize such sensitization lecture next year in the college.
Muhammad, also commended CITAD for organizing the sensitization lecture, saying, it was timely and
college management are committed to partnering with centre for information technology and
development towards achieving the common goal.
Students from different departments of the college attended the sensitization lecture, asking questions
and making contributions to the presentation.


NHRC Zonal Director, Making his speech.

Cross-view of participants

Centre Trains Kano Youths On Use of Social Media for Accountability

By Rabiu Musa

HOTPEN – The Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD), has organized a 2-days training for selected youths from Kano South Senatorial District on the use of Social Media for Accountability in Rano local government area of Kano state.

The training, themed; “Social Media for Accountability”, allowed the participants to acquire relevant skills on the use of social media for accountability and the areas of deploying various platforms for networking, political participation, holding leaders accountable, content creation, entrepreneurship, and a host of others.


During the training, the Centre’s Campaigns and Communications Officer, Mal. Ali Sabo who doubled as the resource person took the participants with lessons on social media best practices within the purview of global digital trends.

The participants also gained knowledge and learned the basic rudiments on the best practices on building and maintaining an online presence for monetary gain with an emphasis on YouTube. Mal. Ali has also taught the participants how to create powerful and captivating written and visual content, which according to him, enhances effective communication, particularly for businesses with their target audience.

The participants were also equipped and exposed to the various features of social media platforms and their usage, techniques of social media engagement, and how to lend a voice on governance by leveraging the technology and its trends.

In his remarks, the CITAD’s Admin and Documentation Officer, Mal. Buhari Abba, who is also the Project Officer, Journalists for Accountability said the Centre organized the 2-days training to educate the youth on the effective use of social media to seek accountability as well as for the improvement of personal and professional development.

A participant at the training, Mukhtar Lawal Abdullahi Rano commended the Centre for organizing the training which, according to him, has exposed them to the use of social media Instrumentalities to hold leaders accountable and improve their lives.

Another Participant, Binta Wada Abubakar acknowledged the giant stride of the organizers. She said the training has positively impacted her life with first-hand knowledge on how to use social media to demand accountability from leaders and participate actively in any issue of national importance on social media.

CITAD launches gender based violence sensitization programme

Center for information technology and development (CITAD) organised its first sensitization programme in Kano at Nigeria security and civil defence corps zonal headquarter.

The programme welcomed stakeholders from different organizations, includes Idris Adamu the commandant of civil service, A.A Haruna the assistant commandant, Barrister Asma’u Suleiman a social secretary in Nigeria bar Association and also a lecturer in law school, Kawu Adam Sule, a lecturer in the department of sociology, Bayero university kano.

Commandant Idris Adamu, commended CITAD on their effort towards enlightening the officers on gender-based violence.

He stressed that “gender-based violence has become a worldwide problem and assured the public that they are civil defence who defend the defenseless”.

Kawu Adamu Sule buttressed on the concepts of gender-based violence and how the public can curtail the menace of gender-based violence.

“We are in a patriarchal society which makes women vulnerable, calling on people to make personal and collective efforts to end impunity, change harmful social norms and report issues to relevant authorities”.

Barrister Asma’u Suleiman, also advised the civil defence officers to do their homework properly by using wisdom not the power of their uniform.

Zainab Aminu gender officer CITAD, expressed reasons why they choose civil defence out of all security agencies, discloses that NSCDC are the top security personnels Nigerians trust.

CITAD, Bauchi SUBEB Partner to Promote Transparency in Procurement

Segun Awofadeji

The Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) has expressed its readiness to collaborate with the Bauchi State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB), in procurement, to promote transparency and accountability.

This was disclosed by a Senior Programme Manager of CITAD, Isa Garba, when he led his team on advocacy to SUBEB and his management.

According to him, CITAD trains directors and deputy directors on accountability and transparency in public service.

“We are here today to inform you that CITAD is granted by the United Sates Agency for International Development (USAID) through the ‘State Accountability, Transparency and Effectiveness’ (State2State) to implement a governance project in Bauchi State,” he explained. “The goal of the project is to strengthen citizens’ participation in governance through active participation in the budgetary and procurement processes of the state.”

According to him, the project’s objectives include enhancing the capacity of 40 CSOs to engage both government and citizens in the budget process to improve citizens’ participation in budget processes and the skills of 40 government officials, among others.

He added that in the implementation process, CITAD would work with SUBEB and engage legislators in increasing the budgetary allocation to the education sector and help the agency in monitoring projects.

In his response, Permanent Commissioner, Alhaji Idris Hardawa, said, “Our books are always open for you to go through, and we are ready to work with you in achieving a transparent procurement atmosphere. We are partners with you in the development of the basic education sector.”

He added, “Everything we do here is open and transparent in line with financial and procurement regulations. We ensure that due process is followed in procurement transactions.”


The program was hosted by Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) with 50 participants from different communities within and outside Kano state.
Opening Statements
The meeting was opened by Malam Ahmad Abdullahi Yakasai on behalf of the Executive Director of CITAD. In his statements, he hinted the importance of the program, orientating the applicants on the project’s expectations while congratulating them as successful applicants. He emphasized that the issue of women’s participation in ICT and digital entrepreneurships in Northern states continued to be of serious concern. However, due recognition needed to be given to the progress that has been made on the new project, where 50 successful applicants out of 596 applicants is a clear example that the women and girls need to tighten up their belt in order to become self-sustainable.
Yakasai added that, being a project supported by EU/ACT, it doesn’t mean we empower women and girls by giving the money, but only empower them with skills and mentorship on how to promote their businesses off and online and to become relevant in digital entrepreneurship. For emphasis to women participation, this gives a clear impression that there is need of participation of young women and girls and people with disabilities in our localities to have a democratic society free of hunger which is achievable through initiatives like this. Said Ahmad.
He finally urged that the applicants should be punctual, avoid irregularities or inconsistency in attending the training, avoid inclusion of uninvited applicants and must have a sound character and be focused. He pointed out that women’s movements should also be seen as having a representational role to play; both in terms of substantive and descriptive representation.

Malam Ibrahim Nuhu, the Program Officer of the project, thanked the EU/ACT British council for collaboration with CITAD to support the training. In his statement, after presenting the concept of the project, the courses to be offered and the duration, he identified major achievements and challenges in promoting women’s equal participation in processes at all levels. He finally explained three (3) major project expectations at the end of the training in context of the project, the participants should have the necessary required skills in order to be able to impact on other women and girls in the society at any time and any moment.
Should have a relative knowledge on ICT and entrepreneurship skills
Should register their business names with Corporate Affairs Commission (C.A.C) and other concerned regulatory agencies related to their businesses to have a legal back up and;
The participants should be participating in e-mentoring and be meeting from time to time for mentoring to discuss on how to expand their businesses, and search for other job opportunities.
Malama Zainab Aminu, the Gender Officer, presented on some factors that hinders northern women in acquiring skills based on experiences are bigotry, extreme poverty, lack of education, lack of parental and husband supports due to culture and tradition that exposed them to gender discrimination and the necessity of the mechanisms is for promoting women in entrepreneurship skills even in their homes. The Digital Livelihood Training will be an one of the effective agents for this transformation. She also mentioned some mechanisms for increasing women’s participation in ICTs and entrepreneurships acquisition skills;
Mindset and zeal: When we change our negative thinking to positive, it increases attention and social movements.
Timing is an important consideration, is a sign of gaining momentum
Training and skill development: Training and mentoring will increase efficiency and ensure sustainability.
The training arrangements was briefed by the Training Officer of CITAD, Kamilu Isa on how it is commencing and the rules behind the training to ensure safety and avoid any irregularities that may hinder the objective to be achieved.
The Project finance officer, Kamal Alhassan Garba explained on how to go along with the logistics in order to adopt clear and transparent rules to ensure effective training by paying them transport fare weekly.
On the part of visitors, Hajiya Hauwa Ibrahim Gashash, from EU/ACT gave some encouraging advises to the participants around putting their best to learn what is the skills and become changed at the end of the program from local business owners and idle women to an established modern entrepreneurs. She sighted some examples of some few achieved women and encouraged these set to emulate the passion and become one of them. A session for question and answers was provided, the beneficiaries asked some questions and made comments of appreciations and their questions were cleared by the CITAD officials. They also contributed in encouraging themselves to increase the era of enterprise.

Some of the issues that occurred during the meeting were absence of invited concerned guest and government officials, which also leads to late commencement.

Use ICT training as a tool in education and training efforts, in particular to overcome the digital divide between men and women in the use of new technologies and to provide women with equal access to information.
The beneficiaries should ensure that they have equal opportunities during training, such as providing access to the ICT facilities, spending weekly transport fare wisely and ensure punctuality and regularity.

The session closed at 2:47pm, refreshments served and transport fare to be paid via banks.


The training is part of the continuation of providing support to micro-organizations toward the establishment of the community networks in the identified seven communities of Bauchi, Kaduna and the FCT. It was attended by the media (print and electronics), the CBOs and other professionals that made various presentations during the weeklong programme.
The project has three segments and these are defined as Work packages 1-3: Work Package one: enhancing the capacity of the meso organization (which is CITAD) to provide training, mentoring and other support for the micro-organizations. Secondly, Work Package 2: training, mentoring and support for seven micro-organizations to aspire to build and or consolidate on their community network projects. The last segment is Work Package 3: work with various stakeholders to address legal, regulatory and policy issues that inhibit the flourishing of community networks in the country.
Therefore. This training of organizations falls under the second package and it was a planned event that drew carefully selected participants from seven communities under the project (Leleyi Gwari, Pasepa, Tungan Ashere, Dakwa, Itas, Jama’are and Fanstuam). Being part of the capacity building programmes (under WP2) for micro-organizations, apart from the physical training CITAD is deploying a longer period of online interaction that will go beyond the physical training and will continue with another stage of mentorship.
Keynote address was made by the representative of Galaxy Backbone, while goodwill messages were delivered online by Miss Edith and in attendance, by another representative of Fantsuam Foundation, Kaduna.
To introduce community organizations (micro-organizations) to the fundamentals and technical aspects of community network
Create synergy among the micro-organizations to advocate/influence establishment of community network
Expose trainees to sustainability strategy toward establishing and managing community networks
The training was conducted through series of presentations, demonstrations, group works and interactions at plenary between trainees and trainers. This method allowed for flow of lessons and sharing of experiences among micro-organizations.
The school was run on two sessions per day, morning and afternoon. This is to provide enough time for assimilation of the various courses taught. At interval, two breaks were observed for brain refresher.

Opening remark:
The Executive Director In his opening remark and background of the project, Engr Y Z Ya’u, stated that over the last 2 years CITAD has been working tirelessly to catalyze the emergence of community networks in Nigeria. Considering that, there is no policy to guide the implementation of Community networks in the country, CITAD took a step to engage the regulators such as Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), the ministry of communications and digital economy as well as other relevant agencies to ensure that appropriate policy is developed for Community Networks to run in the Country. He also stated that part of the objective of the school is to train champions with technical skills on how they can design, deploy and manage community networks. This made CITAD to deliberately have in the curriculum, sustainability strategy for sustenance of the network even at the exit of CITAD. The school will run in two phases, the first phase is an intensive physical one-week residential training which start today, followed by four-month online training which is part of the phase two activities.
Goodwill messages:
Some of the partners that work with CITAD offered Goodwill messages at commencement of the training. Some of these organizations included the Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI), Fantsuam foundation in Kaduna and a member of the advisory committee, Mrs Edith Udeagwu. In her remarks, the Fantsuam representative called for scaling up the School of Community Network to a tertiary Institution (level) that will serve as a sole academic environment which will provide the basic skills for establishing and managing community networks across the country.
Keynote address: By Abdul-Malik Suleiman, Group Head, Regional Offices, Galaxy Backbone.
The opening session was also supported with a keynote address by Mr. Abdulmalik Suleman of Galaxy Backbone Abuja. He spoke on “creating policy framework for the emergence of community networks”. The speaker stated that at Galaxy Backbone one of their objectives is to help in connecting the underserved communities. In this regard they were able to make some significant progress where they connected over 13 states across the nation under the first phase of the National Information Communication Infrastructure Backbone (NICTIB). He also stated that they have commenced the second phase of the project which upon completion, they hope to connect more communities across the 36 states. Mr Suleiman appreciated the effort of CITAD for setting up the School of Community Networks, which according to Galaxy Backbone is another step that will help to strengthen the impact of shared internet experience and shared Network in the Nation.
Highlights of the keynote includes:
For Galaxy Backbone, one of the objectives of why it was set up, was to help in connecting the underserved communities. The Backbone made some significant progress in this regard with the “connection” of over 13 states across the nation under the first phase of the National Information Communications Technology Infrastructure Backbone (NICTIB).
Galaxy Backbone has commenced the second phase of this project which on completion will see it connecting more communities across the 36 states of our dear nation Nigeria.
According to him, the great work the Centre for Information Technology Development (CITAD) has continued to do especially with the setting up of this National School of Community Networks, is another step in the right direction that will help strengthen the impact of shared internet experiences and shared networks in Nigeria.

First School training was presented online by Dr Yusuf Abdulkadir
Topic: What is Spectrum and how it is allocated

The trainees were taken through “What is spectrum? Categories of spectrum, who allocate spectrum, how it is being allocated, how to manage the spectrum as well as the trading and leasing of the spectrum”.
Trainees understood the categories of bands: –
Low band: this radiation travels long distance with minimal signal interruption.
Medium band: provision of a mix coverage and capacity
High band
Who allocates spectrum?
International telecommunications union (ICU) is responsible for allocating spectrum.
How spectrum is allocated?
Basically, the spectrum is allocated on “economies of scale”. This means that, the international community apply some level of politicking n the allocation of spectrum.
How spectrum is allocated?
This is taken and utilized by individual nations/administrations based on peculiarities.
How do you manage spectrum? These is managed in two ways:
Methods of allocating spectrum:
Dynamic spectrum access
Static spectrum access
Emerging trends in spectrum allocation:
Reduction in requirement for infrastructure in the deployment of spectrum
Extending of spectrum to many unserved and underserved

Motivational theories by participation:
Main aim of the programme e.g, on the about 80 million Nigerians don’t have access to internet. This is a provoking issue that require necessary skills to be injected to larger citizens.
There is need for a more broader awareness creation on the need for community network
(Refer to reading materials on power point)

The Second session of Dr Yusuf (applying spectrum allocation)
This is a continuation of the first session on spectrum and the highlights includes: This part covered areas such as achievements of spectrum allocation, 2G/3G coverage, 4G coverage, value of telecom sector and managing spectrum allocation.
Applying spectrum allocation –
Most of the spectrum allocation in use today are not easily available because they are licensed
For any use to apply and use the unlicensed spectrum, this will require equipment certification and must be complied with technical requirements
There is significant interference in the use of ISM band because anyone can use it and this led to the crowding of the space by users
Spectrum allocation model:
International link
National backbone
Licensed shared access (LSA):
Additional licensing with exclusive sharing agreements
LSA is necessary when the spectrum cannot be released within a reasonable time
Licensed-exempt spectrum
Shared use among multiple technology
Idela for local access, short range devices, and opportunistic use for mobile broadband
Spectrum trading and leasing:
Operators are allowed to trade or lease their exclusively assigned spectrum usage rights to other users
Goal to increase efficiency in the use of spectrum
Conclusion: The class was concluded by opening space for interaction. The facilitator appreciated participants for opening space to engage the trainees on spectrum and how they can identify issues for advocacy to support the establishment of effective community network in their respective locations.
Why the issue of license is not protected?

As community representatives, what can people with less technical skills do about spectrum?
Liaison with organist ions like CITAD, making specific requests of information from NCC through associations, etc will open space for link with experts.
On the three bands, what other advantage does the high band have other others?

About ITU – are they in Nigeria? How can our communities get access to it?
How is it useful in Nigeria?
The work of ITU is well known in the telecom industry as a regulatory body. An agenda was drawn for allowing the ITU to effectively work in Nigeria, lately in 2019 and Nigeria is a signatory to it.
The ITU – what is their relationship with government especially on spectrum allocation?
It is largely seen for the purpose of economic gain. The spectrum is mostly allocated based on economies of scale and government focus more on this.


The programmes started with a recap of day-one and some of the areas revised included:
Understanding the international regulatory bodies such as the ITU
Spectrum and how it is allocated
The role of Galaxy in promoting digital inclusion in Nigeria
Spectrum allocation and its management

The second course in the school was introducing trainees to “The TVWS”. This was facilitated by Engineer Kabir Ahmed, (highlights):
TVWS – transmission overview
The TVWS support the provision or access to quality network where obstacles like the hills and valleys doesn’t impact it. But there is density and it may affect it a little (not significantly). The degradation of such obstacles doesn’t affect the accessing of good signals.
For locations where it is remote like rural (living in clusters), it may be difficult because they cannot pay for the services. With TVWS, one tower can serve a lot of clustered communities. The TVWS is meant for not more than 10km (ideal for CN).

The TVWS is considered as an emerging technology to take care of immediate need especially for rural communities with remote or unstable connectivity and in some instances for unconnected areas. This stand to be more useful to the over 60% of the world’s population who don’t have access to modern (education, healthcare, digital communication, business and finance & employment). This alarming percentage require effort to reduce it through provision of alternative connectivity avenue.
WHY TVWS In Africa:
Some of the reasons why internet penetration in Africa is not enough: Many factors contribute to the continued poor or absence of connectivity in some areas/communities. Many reasons that lead to this problem includes – (poverty, corruption, poor awareness, etc). There is a need for additional technology in Africa to support internet access and this justifies the need for the TVWS.
Why CSOs need to advocate for access to internet
It will improve economic growth
Enhance spectrum utilization (a lot of spectrums is under-utilized)
It will help in bridging some educational gaps in rural areas
Another fundamental reason why CBOs should canvass in getting clear definition of using TVWS is
Lack of adequate wireless in the country.
Very high cost of installation
In the process of installation, there are different types of masts relevant for each installation and also specific to location. There is need to consider the following factors when installing mast: –
User need to know that, there are four operators in Nigeria (Glo, MTN, Etisalat and Nmobile)
Whether to apply the concept of c-location (work with multiple service providers)
In terms of users (the antenna has its capacity)
Why are antennas always directional? Satellite technology differs and this is always on two bands. Mindful, user should understand that, weather affects direction in the use of antenna.
A global momentum – worldwide trials and demos. This refers to the deployment of TVWS, and Nigeria has not expressed interests in the use of TVWS for now. Some countries have completed (applied the use of TVWS), some are at planning stage while others are on interest stage. The potentials are available in Nigeria but unutilized.
Completed or on-going
Expression of interests

The SWOT analysis of TVWS:
The strengths: one of the greatest advantages is the use of telemedicine as introduced by some countries such as India. This leads to –
Extensive nation-wide TV coverage
Digital migration already commenced
The weaknesses: In countries such as Nigeria, the absence of such framework hampers lots of interests from many potential users.
Lack of regulatory framework

Opportunities if the TVWS: Some of the opportunities that can be leveraged upon includes: –
Availability of un-utilized frequencies. Potential users can drive on this and bridge the existing space on TVWS
Enhance education within the rural areas
Platform for new wireless broadband entrance
Interference from the existing broadcasting houses. However, this can be avoided when you have your frequency data. Knowledge of availability of such data will avoid duplication in terms of issuing the frequency to another service provider.

In Nigeria and at present, only university of Ilorin is about to set up the use of TVWS in their school campus.

What can the coalition (CBOs) do to avoid collision with the big players in the course of advocating for establishment of community networks in the country?

Evidence-based advocacy can help in dousing possible resistance by some big-wigs in the telecom industry. Also, dialogue/interface between communities and others such as service providers, NCC etc will reduce blockages.

More players may be encouraged to come in because they have the capital, just to make profit. The application of TVWS will generate innovation, just by trying to apply the TVWS. The network gap needs to be addressed.
NCC has presently issued out a draft document to the application of the technology (TVWS).

There is need for local content research that suits our (Nigerian) society.
Supportive regulatory environment.
Stakeholder engagement (engage the community members).
Financial support from individual, government and service providers.

As an alternative source of power to support the establishment of community network and reduce cost of running engines, renewable energy is desirable in the country.

General recommendations:
Organizations should support the development of TVWS usage condition for regularization
USPF should support the use of TVWS IN THE COUNTRY (especially for rural communities). The fund needs to work for communities
Monitor the trials of existing TVWS in any part of the country (by government to entrench compliance)
Detailed study of rural issues needs to be conducted. This refers to proper mapping of communities (to provide all the necessary details/needs of communities)
CBOs to advocate to State governments on the need to allocate budget line to support deployment and use of TVWS
The telecom sector (public and private) should seek funding from sources such as the Worl Bank, etc
Train and develop human resource for TVWS deployment
Setting standards for use of TVWS by regulatory body, NCC
Monitoring the network performance. This can be conducted independently by organizations like CITAD and other NGOs for a more reliable report/outcome
Group work segment:
The trainees were grouped into three, each with a specific task for delivery. Presentations were later made at plenary. Generic question was given to all groups as outlined below:

It is expected that all groups will identify problems in their communities when deciding to apply the TVWS as a solution to a problem. The groups below are expected to areas to be studied are:

Address the problems,
Benefits of TVWS to communities,

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups are to work on

Presentations: Group one (Education) and the Contents are;
Challenges and benefits
Solutions to the identified problems/challenges

Stakeholders include government agencies, community leaders, students, teachers, etc.

Lack of policy

Economic growth
Improvement of education in the community

Need for spectrum database
Proper management

Group two
This group used a community called KIYAWA as a case study to identify the relevance of applying TVWS especially in a disaster-prone situation in the community. Some of the stakeholders identified by the group includes the SEIMU, LG Chair, traditional leaders, religious groups, NCC, NITDA, NGOs/CSOs, etc.

Deployment of the TVWS: this can be through
Fund raising
Community mobilization
International donors
Political office holders
Identified beneficiaries:
Towns neighboring Kiyawa community

In a more-simpler tone, the deployment of TVWS can reduce the sufferings of communities due to disaster through the use of the TVWS. This is possible because it can aid the use of antenna to provide the necessary network in a community that will further, be used to communicate or seek for help/assistance in a state of need.

Group three Health

Lack of advocacy by the CSOs to attract support

Lack of connectivity

Uncompleted projects by governments


Reduction in digital barrier

Promotes distance learning opportunities

Proposal on health issues for support

Building the capacity of CSOs/CBOs

Addressing the issue of digital literacy

Social media campaign

Abolishing of favoritism in health sector

A video was played that depicts the relevance of TVWS especially in Africa where the digital gap is wide and the need to bridge the gap came out from the clip, vividly. The video highlighted how the application of TVWs became useful in a disaster community, educationally disadvantaged communities and similar communities that require quality education. The outcomes of the video are expected to serve as advocacy issues for the Micro-organizations toward a successful community network.

Afternoon session
“VSAT Installation”
Engineer Bello Abdulhamid

VSAT Installation and its maintenance:
Highlights of the topics included: How VSAT looks like, categories of VSAT hardware, how it is installed, managed and the requirements for installation.

The VSAT is technically referred to a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) and is purposely designed to provide internet services to all users. The users can both be in rural or urban depending the location of the user.

How small is the VSAT?
Facilitator used images to demonstrate what a VSAT looks like and how it is installed. The weight of the outdoor hardware may be anything from 50kg to 500kg including the mouthing hardware. It is characterized by a very small “aperture” and the cost of equipping the aperture is higher than the cost of its maintenance. This need to be understood by potential users.

There are two groups of VSAT hardware:
Outdoor unit assembly
Indoor unit assembly

Few things to consider before installation of VSAT and these are:
Equipment needed for the installation (specific)
Knowledge of installation
Equipment required for the installation
Outdoor unit (dish, the radio, receiver, the modem, need for a clear sky to avoid obstruction,)
Indoor unit ()
While there is need for any installer to have a compass that will aid him/her to know the direction of signal.

VSAT Installation is covered/regulated by private sector
VSAT is powered by sun with a guarantee of up to 15 years
One of the advantages of VSAT is its installation in a place where there is no internet. The VSAT will provide better access to the use of internet provision. Here, one can use his google internet to identify the best place suitable for the installation.
Why do user encounter disconnection when there is cloud?? This was responded thus: that analogue signals have tolerance than the digital. This means that, the analogue digital provision tolerates cloud and thunder especially during rainy season. There is less obstruction unlike the digital signal which easily responds to cloud and other environmental factors that distracts network. Each particular signal has a specific location or direction.

(See full reading materials provided for full lectures)
ICT Policy landscape in Nigeria and community networks (opportunities and challenges)
Engr Usman Maaruf Yakubu

Background of the presentation: this presentation comprises of about 20 different areas under the telecommunications. They are (National Digital Economy Policy & Strategy, partnership, infracos, regulatory landscape, NCC Act, ICT structure, postal services, ICT structure in Nigeria broadcasting, ICT structure in Nigeria NITDA, community network – a way to bridge the digital gap, the SDGs, benefits of CN, Challenges of CN, characteristics of CN and Why Community Networks in Nigeria, Challenges in the Regulatory Terrain and How ready is the Terrain, start-up barriers, Registration, Licensing, Permitting, and Compliance, Taxes, Regulatory/Licensing, and Import Fees, financing, Spectrum Difficulties, Spectrum Scarcity and Inefficient Use of Spectrum, Expense of Spectrum Access, What laws do you need to comply with,

Communities need structure and most be organized before they get a recognized and acceptable community network. There must be adequate information about any community before establishing a community network center. This information must be holistic that can depict what a community is generally (socially, economically, politically).

About six bodies are involved in the development and implementation of ICT policy in Nigeria. They are (NCC, NITDA, NBC, NIPOST, NiComSat and the federal ministry of communication and digital economy). However, there are distinct differences between one and another. For instance, NIPOST regulate activities such as postings of letters and other local dispatches from one place to another within Nigeria. NBC regulate the activities of media especially the radio and television. While, NITDA and the federal ministry of communications and digital economy regulates activities that revolve around service provision like the network coverage provided by companies such as MTN, Glo, Etisalat, etc.

Policymakers and regulators can help reach the next billions unconnected through innovative changes and through community network initiatives, helping to close the digital divide. To unleash the full potential community networks, policymakers should consider innovative ways to license Community Networks and provide meaningful access. This includes:
Streamline or Eliminate Onerous Regulatory Requirements, especially those that are not applicable to small, community-based networks.
Provide Tax, Customs, Regulatory, and Licensing Fee Exemptions. These fees and duties are difficult for community network operators to afford and can delay or prevent their development.
Enhance Transparency. Regulators should provide clear, public guidance on the specific policies and regulatory requirements (and exemptions) for community networks.
ICTs contributed about 12.45% in the 2020 budget of the FGN.

National digital economy policy and strategy: The federal government has put in place the following polices to regulate various activities under the ICTs.
Solid infrastructure (provides protection against network/service interference)
Service infrastructure
Indigenous content development and adoption
Digital society and emerging technologies
Soft infrastructure (this covers issues such as providing protection against abuse of person’s rights), ethics

Generally, for any community network to effectively be operated and managed, it must be fully owned by the community. This also means that they have to be into business because the NCC considered registration of communities with such intent only when they are into making sales/profit.

Regulatory landscape: It needs to be noted that, there were previously total fixed telephone lines and there were less than 400, 000 lines in years back. This is more evident prior to 1999 and regular internet users were less than 200, 000 at that time. While, in year 2000, the FGN adopted the national IT policy called NIT policy. To open and operate a business café, NCC provides license, etc. This provided opportunities for individuals to come into the communications industry more than before.

Practical session on searching for NCC Act (online).: nccarena

Lesson conclusion:
The session was closed with a call to trainees to understand that, there is a law which prescribes cyber criminality. The journey of Nigeria’s movement to the digital age is quite not steady due to weak political will and this requires deliberate and collective effort to move the process forward. There is need also, for mix of technology to for fiber optics to connect communities that are digitally disadvantaged.

Technology options
By Engr Rabiu Haruna

Trainees were taken through the various options available and other issues around community networks. As a base for understanding the subject, trainees were (as an illustration) exposed to the shift made from the analogue system to a more digital age, eg. the use of 090 in the telephony industry which marks a new shift in technology. Also, the frequency and techniques in usage differs and the limitation in capacity as well.
The technology shift tries to achieve much especially on the movement in the generations from 1st to today’s 5G. lots of changes from the previous mechanical and electrical gadgets are also clear examples of shift from the analogue age to present digital generation. Mobile network serves as a hub for linking the user and the service provider. However, there are at times that no service provider can provide up to 100% network without interference. Some of the constraints of which are purely natural. Some issues can however, be resolved e.g, study and adjustment of the transmission power, etc.

Between the space and water, which one electric current flow/move faster?

For any internet service provision, there must be service provider’s issuance

Any mechanism to serve as an alternative to communities that are not connected especially where even the fiber is difficult to be shared?

Spectrum management is the sole responsibility of the government. the operator must certify all the needed requirements.

Micro-organizations should be a bit more critical/proactive on advocacy around community network (the sustainability aspect)

For sustainability purpose, there is need to agree on a reasonable (affordable) fee that community members will be charged for any service to be rendered by a CN. This charge/proceed will be used to sustain the CN.

The towers around our neighborhood are meant to provide the necessary networks needed to our phones/cell phones

The service provider has a duty to make profit and make his business sustainable

Various types of electromagnetics:
Electrical and electromagnetic telecommunication technologies include the following:
The telegraph
Microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellite and the internet amongst others
Types of electromagnetic radiation:
Visible light, etc
Group work and outcomes:
The facilitator grouped trainees into three and assigned different tasks which was later presented at the plenary. Questions, observations and comments were made thereafter;

Group two task:
List the different types of transmission networks available>

Group three task:
List the different types of radio access>

Some challenges of the telecommunication industry:
Poor or weak private investor’s participation in the country to support effective communication especially in the less advantaged communities
Weak willingness by government to support and protect public telecoms interests
Artificial low price in the telecoms sector
However, government is advised to have a regulated minimum price level to balance the sides of both service provider and customer.

Next steps: As part of the MoU signed between CITAD and the micro-organizations, the following were the next steps
CITAD will continue to provide mentoring to the organizations
CITAD to conclude the remaining courses not covered during the physical session at second phase
Micro-organizations will lead in community mobilization to further secure and consolidate community buy-in and support for the local community network initiative
Be responsible for preparing and submitting regular report of activities to CITAD
CITAD will provide training schedule for the second phase

End of training:
The training came to an end on day-four with the administration of post training evaluation forms to trainees. This was aimed at measuring their level of understanding/comprehension of the programme and what they actually learned as take-away. Similarly, a commitment form was signed by the trainees with a view to encourage them to be more proactive on promoting the initiative. The commitment charter is to trigger responsiveness from the trainees on their expected roles toward supporting the establishment of the Community Network. Study materials were provided to the trainees for further readings.

Mr Eseyin of Fantsuam foundation Kaduna offered vote of thanks on behalf of other trainees and the programme closed at about 5:00pm. The school sessions were covered on video, pictures and audio.


Policy regulations in Nigeria
Engr Usman Ma’aruf Yakubu, NITDA, Abuja

Technology Options
Engr Rabiu Haruna

Engr Kabir Ahmed

Applying Spectrum
Dr Yusuf Abdulkadir, NCC, Abuja

Copy of pre-Training evaluation form

Keynote Address
Engr Abdilmalik Suleman – Galaxy Backbone, Abuja

Reading list

Agenda for the training

VSAT installation and Maintenance
Engr Bello Abdullhamid

VSAT installation
Engr Bello Abdullhamid

Press conference
Engr Y Z Ya’u, CITAD

Media clip
Daylight publishers

Media clip (radio)
Freedom radio, Kaduna

Media clip
NNN, Kaduna

CITAD Restates Need to Develop Guidelines, Regulations for Operation of Community Networks in Nigeria

CITAD Restates Need to Develop Guidelines, Regulations for Operation of Community Networks in Nigeria

PRESS RELEASE: CITAD Urges Urgent Intervention in Community Network to Bridge Digital Divide

CITAD Advocate for National Policy on Community Network to bridge digital gap
The Campus Watch

CITAD Advocates For National Policy On Community Networks To Address Digital Divide


114 communities don’t have GSM signals in Nigeria —CITAD

114 Communities Don’t Have GSM Signals on Nigeria —CITAD
Nigerian Tribune Newspapers

114 communities don’t have GSM signals in Nigeria —CITAD

CITAD Launches the Nigerian School of Community Network
Nigerian Tracker

CITAD Launches the Nigerian School of Community Network

Pre-training evaluation form,

Post training evaluation form

NSCN Nigerian School of Community Network
TVWS Television White Space
CITAD Centre for Information Technology and Development
WP2 Work Package two
FCT Federal Capital Territory
CBO Community Based Organization
NCC Nigerian Communications Commission
A4AI Alliance for Affordable Internet
LSA Licensed Share Access
ITU International Telecommunications Union
SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
NITDA National Information Technology Development Agency
IT Information Technology
ICTs Information and Communication Technologies
NIPOST Nigerian Postal Services
NICTIB National Information Communication Infrastructure Backbone


The Centre for Information technology and development (CITAD) as part of its project on
Supporting Community-led Approaches to Addressing the Digital Divide in Nigeria which is
part of larger project on community networks coordinated globally by the Association for
Progressive Communications (APC) and supported by the Foreign, Commonwealth and
Development Office of the UK Government, convened a one-day consultative meeting  on
Gender and  Community Networks. Community networks are telecommunications
infrastructure deployed and operated by a local group to meet their own communication
needs and also a communications infrastructure, designed and erected to be managed for
use by local communities. This communication needs can be voice, data, e-learning etc. and
can be a point of convergence for communities to come together to address their common
community problems. The meeting, attended by over 25 CSOs, Media Personnel, Women
Led-groups and CSOs from different parts of the country was held in Bafra International
Hotel, Kaduna, Kaduna State on January 15, 2022. It was also meant to generate more
voices about the need to develop policies that address the gender digital divide in Nigeria.
Additionally, it was aimed to continue the effort toward working with the Nigerian
Communication Commission to develop a national policy on community networks.
The meeting featured five presentations as follows:
1. Understanding Community Networks
2. Gender and Digital Marginalization in Nigeria
3. The Policy in Nigeria as relates to Community Networks
4. What CITAD is doing in the Relation to Community Networks?
5. Gender Issues and Community Networks
Participants observed that:
1. Women are digitally marginalized in the digital space which creates a huge gap in the
2. Most of the policies relating to digital technology in the country are not gender
responsive as a result of the marginalization of women in the policy and decision making
3. Women voices are not heard in terms of making contributing on how to address the
gender digital divide in the country
4. Gender and women marginalization starts from girl-child
5. Online harassment discourages women effective participation in digital space
6. Security agencies pay less attention to online sexual and gender based violence against

7. Community networks constitute an important strategy to promote digital inclusion in the
8. The country currently does not have a policy to allow for the emergence and
sustainability of community networks.

Participants, believing that women participation in the community networks have immense
benefits in terms of bridging the digital divide in the country, made the following
1. Government should as a matter of urgency come up with a National Policy on Community
Networks to create the conducive environment for that will catalyze citizens’ action of
address their digital marginality
2. The ICT policies should be gender friendly, allowing for equal access to participation and to
use and benefits of digital technology
3. . Women need to be claim a space in the policy making processes so that their experiences
and challenges could be given the attention they deserved in the quest for gender digital
4.  Women should be allowed to present their issues and chance to provide possible to their
5.   Women should organize vigorously to ensure that their numerical strengthen counts in
policy outcomes in the country
6.  In pushing  for a policy on community networks, women should play a leading role to ensure
that the community network initiatives to do replication and reinforce the gender blindness
of existing policies in the digital space
7. Social Media influencers should do more on creating awareness to people in the rural
8. Government and other stakeholders to address online gender violence as well as the
prevalence of harmful contents on the internet that inhibits women effective engagement in
the cyberspace

The participants unanimously resolved to form a Platform of Women Activists for
Community Networks  with the following objectives:
1. Popularize the importance of women participation the emerging community networks
initiatives and see it as tool to bridging the gender digital marginalization in the country
2. Sensitizing their community members, social media followers as well as their
organizations about the importance and benefits of women engagement with community
networks initiatives
3. To advocate stakeholders involved to come up with a national gender based policy
framework for community networks in the country

4. to advocate for more women to engage digital technology general,, including the safe and
secure use of social media platforms
5. Support effort by all stakeholders to address the multifarious dimensions of the digital
divide in Nigeria.
6. campaign for special initiatives for the massive digital literacy among girls in secondary
schools so that the digital bridging process should begin at that level
Harira Wakili, Community Mobilization Officer
Yemi Balogun, Yemi Balogun Media




Gender-Based violence is a harmful act being inflicted at individuals based on their gender. This has to do with gender inequality, the abuse of power and harmful norms. GBV is a serious violation of human rights and a life-threatening health and protection issue. Estimates published by WHO indicate that globally one in three women has experienced sexual or physical violence in her life. “Violence against women Prevalence Estimates, 2018”


From the cultural perspective, the practice of gender-based violence is predominant in the world societies, especially developing countries like Nigeria. One of the identifiable forms of GBV is sexual harassment or abuse of children by either their parents or guardians.


These abuses have endangered the lives of many girls in the society and often times led to physical and psychological harms, even death sometimes: GBV therefore remains an obstacle to girls’ education and children development in general.


As part of the effort to curb GBV in the society and to promote the wellbeing of women and girl child, including creating a safe and secure educational environment, the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) with support from Ford Foundation has been implementing a project titled “Strengthening Citizens Response and Protection Against Gender Based Violence in Kano, Nigeria” whose aim is to Achieve a safe society for women and girls, free from gender violence and discrimination to bridge gender gap in girl child education, allowing for the attainment of gender parity in educational accomplishments  .


This involves stakeholders’ engagement, advocacy, tracking and monitoring of GBV incidences in order to make informed statements. It is for this reason that the organization has instituted a monthly press conference to share information and data relating to GBV in Kano State. The objective of doing this is to create public visibility of this menace and sensitize all stakeholders to take action for addressing it.


Our Efforts:

In tracking incidences of GBV in the state, CITAD has deployed a multi-approach mechanism including:

  1. The use of electronic platforms for people to reports incidences in privacy
  2. The use of monitors in tertiary institutions in the state
  3. Embedded monitors within communities
  4. Cooperation and sharing of data with various agencies such as National Orientation Agency (NOA)
  5. Sensitization activities by trained champions with the communities



The table below shows the breakdown analysis of data collected on the GBV App in the month of September 2021.


Download the table using the link below

GBV Table 114KB

The data above shows that GBV is been perpetrated against both male and female gender with a higher number of female victims within all age ranges in both rural, urban and suburban communities with prevalence in Urban communities. The perpetrators are also of both genders, although with a higher number of male perpetrators. It was also observed that the perpetrators are either family members, teachers/lecturers, student peers or even those that have no relation to the victims.





– Kano State House of Assembly to domesticate the Child Rights Act and VAPP Act at the state level which will contribute in reducing this menace.


– Kano state government to speed up the implementation of Child Right Act in the State as this will help in reducing child abuse in the state


– Religious leaders to use their preaching platforms in creating awareness against GBV in the state


– Traditional leaders both at state and local levels to work with different authorities in curtailing the menace of GBV in the state


– Institutions of higher learning in the state should all develop and implement gender policy and create appropriate mechanisms for victims and others to reports such incidences to the authorities.


– The state government to not only adopt laws to protect women and girls, but also establish referral centres and forensic centres for victims.


– Government and Non-Governmental organizations should intensify activities to promote awareness and advocacy on violence against women.


– Media houses to use their platforms in creating awareness against GBV and be reporting punishments done to perpetrators of GBV instead of GBV cases.



Zainab Aminu

Gender Project Programme Officer



On its continued efforts to link communities with networks and have access to affordable networks, the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) had today 20th August 2021 sensitized the Tungan Ashere community on community network connection based.

The sensitization campaign is part of a larger activity of the Centre on Supporting Community-led Approaches to Addressing the Digital Divide Nigeria which is being coordinated globally by the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) with support from the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth, and Development Office (FCDO) through their Digital Access Programme (DAP).

As network problem is becoming rampant in Nigeria, in accessing services such as voice call, text message, and Internet access as a result of the lack of community networks in Nigeria.

The community networks project sensitization program has already been implemented in other communities in the country; Jama’are and Itas in Bauchi, Dakwa in Abuja all are among the communities that are benefiting from the program.

This sensitization program was held at Tugan Ashere Community FCT.

The program started with a definition of community network and its benefits to the communities; these are some of the major contents that were discussed during the by CITAD technical officer Engineer Suhail Sani
among other topics that were discussed include service render by community network, regulatory conditions of the project, and sustainability issues for the community networks.

Also, part of the discussions was the linkages of the communities to open access to networks.

Religious leaders, youth representatives, and traditional rulers were among the participants that attended the sensitization. In the end, participants asked questions and offered contributions.

Report of One Day Capacity Building on Community Networks For The Jama’are Micro-Organizations Held At CITAD Office Jama’are

The Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) is implementing a project entitled Supporting Community-led Approaches to Addressing the Digital Divide Nigeria coordinated globally by the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) support from the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) through their Digital Access Programme (DAP).

This is part of a global project to catalyze the flourishing of community networks as a means of connecting the unconnected

The project focuses on selected locally managed community networks in three regions, Africa, Asia and Latin America, to strengthen their impact, reach and sustainability

This group of community networks will form the core of a peer community that can connect and broaden support for community-based connectivity initiatives, nationally, regionally and internationally

The project will achieve its objectives through peer learning and exchange, awareness raising, technical assistance, capacity building for the development of scalable, innovative and sustainable networks, policy and regulatory advocacy and community mobilization.

The training was held at CITAD office Jama’are branch on Tuesday 04th May 2021, with 8 attendees from Itas DEX Initiatives, Jama’are Traders Association, Jama’are blowse Association, and Itas youth Association, opening remarks was said by Engineer Suhail CITAD Technical officer, he welcomed each and every one who attended the training he says that the purpose of the training is to aware and shows the benefits of the community networks to the peoples as well as how to start or build their own community networks,

The training slides has 9 modules, and started at 10:00am by Engineer Suhail with the introduction to community networks, what services community networks offers and types of community networks, he gives clear definition of community networks by the Internet Society (ISOC) and services that community networks offer like voice, data E.T.C and ended the section one of the training with discussion about the types of community networks and answering questions from the participants,

Goes to 30 minutes break from 11:30am to 12:00am after the section one of the training has ended

Back to the training Engineer Suhail continuous with the explanation on how to start community networks, what facilities or infrastructures needed in order to start community networks, and explanation on what regulatory conditions required for communities to start their own community networks,

And again goes to 30 minutes breaks from 1:30pm to 2:00pm, after the section two of the training completed

The last section of the training has started from 2:00pm by Engineer Suhail, he explains how the community network link themselves nationally and internationally, and ended the last section of the training by explaining the ways for community networks follows to solve sustainability issues, that is how the community networks continuous sustaining itself even without any support from others organizations like APC.

The whole training finished with the vote of thanks by the Engineer Suhail CITAD technical officer, he thanks everyone for attending the training and he encouraged these micro-organizations members to be very active and spend their time by acquiring new skills so that the project will successfully be achieved and implemented in their area.




Sufyan Lawal Kabo and Shehu Usman Salihu

 On 9/12/13, the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) with support from SAVI organized a 2-day Social Media training for advocacy training for CSOs at the State Library Dutse, Jigawa State. 28 members (17 Male, 11Female) from various Civil Society Organizations attended the workshop, these organizations were: PMP, BASNEC Bauchi State, PTE, GSI, HERFON, MNCH, MNEH, and CLO.

The specific objectives of the workshop was:

  • To improve the capacity of the participants on how to use social media for advocacy, information sharing, and mobilize a group of concerned people around an issue or cause. 
  • To improve knowledge of the participants on social media as communication tools, to enhance their capacity on the use of social media for advocacy to promote the social media for advocacy and promote the capacity of the CSOs to use social media for organizational management.  

After the Opening prayer was observed by a volunteer among the participants,SAVI’s Programme Officer, Mrs. Jummaiset the context for the training byoutlining the background of the workshop. In her Opening remarks, she welcomed the participants and introductions were made by all.CITAD’s M&E Officer, Malam Isyaku Garba gave brief objectives of the workshop. In his remarks, Garbasatetd that in order to re-direct this energy and potentials to transform society, there is need to strategically engage the use of social media for specific socially identified goal such as the campaign for peace.  Doing this requires building of a core of social media activists who would consciously engage the use of social media toward a defined goal. Civil society organizations provide a natural depository of this possible core of social media activists.

It was therefore decided to sensitize and train a number of CSOs with a view to getting them to contribute through use of social media for such noble causes as the campaign for peace and against violence. These trained CSO activists could then provide the base for amplifying and multiply the messages of the campaigns across all the various dimensions of the social media.

The workshop he said was specifically designed and developed for that purpose.

The workshop has assumed that users are already ICT literate. The approach adaption- is how CSOs can strategically deploy social media for advocacy purpose and campaign purposes. The training is therefore focused on

The workshop consists of 2 units including the introduction. While introductory unit provides an exposure on the various dimensions of social media, the other unit was designed in the form of hands-on skills impacting sessions.

After his remarks, the ground rules were set and the training commenced.

The first session UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL MEDIA was taken by Sufyan Lawal Kabo. In it, he defined Social Media, types of Social Media and the statistic on social media patent growth. The presentation extensively exposed the participants to Social Media and a range of innovative examples of qualitative and mixed methodsused in evaluation.These innovative lessons provided opportunities for the participants,thus made them to question the presenter on how they can explore the methods in their own contexts.

Shehu Usman Salihu took the second session which was on use of Facebook, Twitter and Youtube in theory. He took each one and explained its origin, its uses and how it could be used.

 The third session was on EVALUATING SOCIAL MEDIA by Sufyan Lawal Kabo. The participants learnt the Evaluation procedures; what needs to be evaluated at the beginning, mid-term and end of a program and the methodology to be used.

The second day also featured three presentations during the morning session. These were PLANNING SOCIAL MEDIA ADVOCACY, BUILDING UP FRIENDS AND FOLLOWERS by Mal. Isyaku Garba and understanding Twitter by Shehu Usman Salihu.

After the aforementioned presentations, the participants were taken through hands-on practical on facebook, twitter and YouTube all facilitated by Shehu Usman Salihu which carried them through Setting up their personal accounts, Managing profiles, Twitter handles as well as groups and pages. The practical also featured on various skills for the use of these tools such as sending messages, uploading pictures/videos, adding friends, deleting posts, placing picture, video conferencing and permanent deletion accounts, etc.

The last session, HOW SOCIAL MEDIA FOR PEACE CAMPAIGN CAN BE USED BYCSOS was facilitated by Mal. Isyaku Garba. The participants went through specific examples of use of social media for peace campaign in different areas.

There was an incredible amount of listening, learning, and enthusiasm during the presentations.Finally, the participants thanked CITAD /SAVI and MacArthur for organizing and conducting the training. In their comments, they showed their appreciation in terms of overall knowledge gained and practical application. Comments on the evaluation forms include: excellent, effective, and fantastic,”while some said the visit to them served as a vital catalyst in the reformulation of theirorganizations because it has launched them into a new planning orbit.

The participants were extensively exposed to the use of social network, how to sign up on facebook, twitter, and YouTube accounts, sharing activities on social networks, create awareness online etc.

At the end of the program, Malam Haruna Adamu Hadejia from SAVI gave the closing remarks. In it, he thanked both the participants and facilitators. The workshop closed with a closing prayer by a volunteer from the participants.