Report of Monthly Dialogue on Public Education on COVID19 Vaccine Project


On Tuesday 1st March, 2022 the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) organized a virtual dialogue to deliberate issues around slow uptake of the COVID19 vaccine. The dialogue which took place via the Zoom platform hosted two public health experts-Dr. Hassan Shuaibu Musa, Principal Medical Officer and Lecturer at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi and Dr. Ma’awuya Aliu as speakers, Hon. Jafar Mohammed Zuru, Commissioner, Kebbi State Ministry of Health gave a keynote address while Dr. Mainasara Yakubu Kurfi, the Head, Department of Mass Communications, Bayero University Kano served as moderator. 

The one hour thirty minutes virtual event titled “Discussing COVID19 Vaccine Uptake Series 2.0” began with goodwill message from Hon. Jafar  Muhammed Zuru, Commissioner of Health Kebbi State who was represented by Haruna Abdullahi, Director Immunization and Disease Control in the Ministry, in the message he commended CITAD for organizing the dialogue adding that it is a timely effort as it brought qualified stakeholders to deliberate on the vaccination issue, he urged participants from various states to listen to the speakers with interest and make use of the strategies they will share during the dialogue. 

Hindrances and factors responsible for slow uptake of the vaccine, hesitancy or non acceptance of the vaccine shared by the speakers during the dialogue included the following:

  1. Fear of side of adverse effect of the vaccine
  2. Healthcare workers vaccine hesitancy 
  3. Lack of national policy on vaccine administration
  4. Lack of targeted communication strategy 
  5. Lack of risk communication assessment mechanism and response strategy 
  6. Unavailability of vaccines in some locations 
  7. Lack of sufficient credible information on vaccine efficacy 
  8. Societal perception on the virus and vaccine
  9. Circulation of false narratives on the vaccine on social media 
  10. Cultural and traditional beliefs on the vaccine
  11. Poor vaccine administration and delivery 
  12. Poor public knowledge COVID19 asymptomatic patients  

 It noted was during the dialogue that hesitancy of the vaccine by healthcare workers is heavily and negatively impacting the vaccination exercise, it was also learned that for example in Bauchi state only 11% of the state’s healthcare workers took the vaccine, the concern therefore was how would the public have trust and confidence in the vaccine if healthcare workers are also reluctant to take it? Another issue raised during the dialogue was that many people COVID19 patients are asymptomatic and the public justify their misconception on the virus, for example again in Bauchi state 78% of COVID19 patients were asymptomatic. After intense deliberation on the above areas, questions and comments by the dialogue participants, the speakers recommended the following:

  1. Taking the vaccine should be made mandatory for all healthcare workers in order to boost confidence of the public on the vaccine. 
  2. States should develop information dissemination and communication strategy to constantly engage the public on the vaccine. By extension it was recommended that live phone-in radio programmes should consistently be aired to provide detailed and sufficient information to listeners in local languages, respond to questions they have as well as use the programme to restrategize the information and communication chain. 
  3. There is the need to have a national and state policy on vaccination, the policy should take into cognizance the contexts and peculiarities of different communities. 
  4. Vaccination authorities should leverage mass gatherings-social, religious, traditional, etc with COVID19 vaccine.
  5. There is the need to amplify positive testimonies on the vaccine particularly testimonies of people the public will believe and trust. 
  6. There is the need to have a functional risk communication strategy
  7. States should embark on mass campaign on the mainstream media, social media and local or traditional gatherings.   
  8. Information and communication approach should target behavioural change

Report of A Two Day Training On The Use of Social Media for Accountability

In our contemporary societies, social media and social networking sites continue to permeate every aspect of our social and national lives. Hence, the dire need for training and re-training of youths to use the social media professionally.
Sequel to the above, the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) conducted a two day social media for accountability training in Kano South Senotorial District Headquarter, Rano local Government Area, Kano state.
The training, themed; “Social Media for Accountability”, allowed the participants to acquire relevant skills on the use of social media for accountability and the areas of deploying various platforms for networking, political participation, holding leaders accountable, content creation, entrepreneurship, and a host of others.
The Centre Communication Officer, Ali Sabo revealed that the Centre intends to train youth in Kano state on the ethics of using the social media to promote accountability, fighting corruption and consolidate democracy.
Sabo, said today social media gives the ordinary citizens avenue to express their opinions about governance as it concerns them, like every technology requires certain skills for professional utilization without which will lead to a the abuse of the platforms.
He further stated that youth can use social media to bring about positive changes and reforms in the country. Also social media can be used to hold government officials accountable for their action which in normal circumstances cannot be done. He added.
The aim of the training is to educate the youth on how to use social media effectively and to also use it as a tool for holding government accountable.

Report of Sensitization Lecture On Gender-Based Violence at Saadatu Rimi College of Education Kano

Every March 8, Nigerian women join the rest of the world to celebrate the International Women’s Day (IWD). In Kano state, A Non-Governmental Organization working to Prevent Gender-Based Violence in Kano,

the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD), organized a one-day sensitization lecture on Gender-based violence to the students of Kano State College of Education (Sa’adatu Rimi College of Education), to commemorate the 2022 IWD.
International Women’s Day, celebrated annually on March 8 – is a day that commemorates the social, political and economic achievements of women as well as creating awareness on issues that affect women and girls and to proffer solutions to them.
The theme for this year’s International Women’s Day is: “Gender equality today for a sustainable tomorrow.”

This year’s campaign is represented by the #BreakTheBias hashtag and calls on people towork towards a world that is equitable, inclusive, and free from bias and discrimination against women.
Zainab Aminu who is Gender Officer of CITAD, presented a paper titled “Concept of Gender-Based Violence” she congratulated women all over the world on the day, reminded them of the need to use the occasion to create awareness on sexual and gender based violence issues with the aim of finding a lasting solution.
According to her, the sensitization lecture was a call to action for all stakeholders on the mission, to eliminate all forms of gender-based violence in Kano state.
It is important to raising awareness and sensitization, prioritizing access to safe learning environment,and changing negative norms and harmful beliefs about gender roles that reinforce the ugly practice, Zainab said.
She added that Gender-based violence is a universal problem, and the solution to the problem requires awareness, sensitization and all stakeholders to work together in addressing the problem.
Miss Zainab went further to say the scale of sexual gender-based violence, violence against women and
girls and discrimination is alarming. The spike, pattern, trends, and the consequences of these forms of
violence impact negatively on individuals, families, communities, and the state in general".
On his remarks, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) Boss, Kano Zonal office, Mal. Abdullahi
expressed that people who experience gender violence suffered from different human rights violations –
like right to life, freedom from torture and degrading treatment, freedom from discrimination and the
right to safety and security.
He added that NHRC is using a range of innovative measures to defend the rights of women and girls in
its campaign to end sexual and gender based violence in Nigeria.

Abdullahi added that in promoting awareness, the NHRC is supporting the production of ‘State of
Human Rights’, a weekly television programme that covers key human rights issues and progress made
so far in Nigeria, as well as increasing their presence on social media. View clips from ‘State of Human
Rights’ on Twitter.
He also urged parents, religious institutions, community members and the media to encourage victims
to speak out on cases of abuse or violence.
Dr. Bashir Sani, who is the Director Guidance and Counseling of the college said that Sa’adatu Rimi
College of Education had well-articulated and clear rules and regulations.
He explained that the rules and regulations provided an environment that was safe, non-discriminatory,
non-exploitative and free from harassment and sexual assault.
He also urged the participants to use the knowledge learned during the session and give same to their
On his part, the Dean, students affairs of the College, Malam Rabi'u Muhammad said that the college is
ready to partner with CITAD to sensitize students on all matters pertaining to women and young girls.
He also asked CITAD to re-organize such sensitization lecture next year in the college.
Muhammad, also commended CITAD for organizing the sensitization lecture, saying, it was timely and
college management are committed to partnering with centre for information technology and
development towards achieving the common goal.
Students from different departments of the college attended the sensitization lecture, asking questions
and making contributions to the presentation.


NHRC Zonal Director, Making his speech.

Cross-view of participants


Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) is a capacity
building civil society organization whose activities cover research, advocacy,
training and publicity in all areas of ICT for development and good governance.
CITAN in partnership with Action Aid Nigeria held a training for 30 (21 males and 9
females) community activists on election observation, on Tuesday 1 st February,
2022 at Goodview hotel Dutse Alhaji, Abuja. The training aims to improve
accountability and transparency in the electoral processes, and to strengthen
citizen’s voices in other to amplify actions in pursuing specific policy change
proposals in Nigeria.
The training started with a self-introduction by participants, followed by a
welcome address by Mubarak Ekute who explained to the participants the
purpose of the training. There was a quick review of the FCT observer’s election
experiences of the past elections from the fields and photo gallery, for better
positioning at the coming election.
Celestine Okwudili ODO AAN’s governance manager exposed the participants to
the election observation procedure and code of conduct while understanding the
key principles, electoral guideline in line with the electoral frame work, incident
reporting & escalation of issues; procedures for communicating issues from the
field to the situation room and understanding the observation checklist. In his
presentation he stated that the training was to make voters observe the dos and
don’ts of election generally, especially in the Abuja Municipal Area council’s up-
coming election. The experiences of past elections there were many challenges,
especially the failure of machines, thuggery, vote buying, hijacking of ballot boxes
and sundry issues. The training showed the participants that the February 12
election is an opportunity to change the Local Government chairmen that failed in
carrying out responsibilities for their communities.
The training was interactive, participatory and inclusive as participants asked
questions and discussed. A social media platform was created to allow all
participants to engage in and raise their concerns after the training, before the

Election Day. A toolkit on election observation was presented to each participant
in order to learn, engage and take action while on the field. The challenge
encountered was in time management, the time was not enough to allow for
group works, as participants had to break to pray and have lunch at intervals.
Yesmin Salako delivered a vote of thanks to end the training, she stated that the
participants should make sure they do not sell their next four years, but rather
secure their future. She assured the participants that they will be kept abreast of
the next process to get their kits to observe the election.


The Centre for Information Technology and Development had on 10 th of February, 2022 under
its project on Mobilizing and Catalyzing Citizens Action for Accountable Election and
Governance in Nigeria supported by MacArthur Foundation held its Second Dialogue on Anti-
Corruption Fight in Nigeria with three of its sub-grantees; Mu’azu Alhaji Modu, Executive
Director, Spotlight for Transparency and Accountability, Mustapha Bulama, Editorial Cartoonist
with Daily Trust and Joshua Alabi, Executive Director, KININSO KONCEPTS and moderated by
Kabiru Danladi, Lecturer with Department of Mass Communications, Ahmadu Bello University
Zaria. In the previous edition, CITAD hosted Abubakar Sadiq Mu’azu, Executive Director, Center
for Advocacy, Transparency and Accountability Initiative, Jide Ojo, Independent Researcher,
Writer, Public Affairs Analyst and Journalist and Chioma Agwuegbo, Executive Director,
TechHerNG, the session was chaired by Mukhtar Modibbo of Connected Development.
The aim of the dialogue is to give the sub-grantees under this project an opportunity to
regularly share their work with a wider audience in promoting accountability and fighting
corruption in Nigeria. The dialogue is also aimed at giving both the sub-grantees and young
people who have interest in the area an opportunity to discuss and share ideas.
Giving his remarks at the dialogue, the Executive Director of CITAD, Malam Yunusa Zakari Ya’u
who was represented by the Centre’s Communications Officer, Malam Ali Sabo said CITAD has
for many years been working in the area of accountability and fighting corruption in Nigeria and
empowering young people to demand for good governance in Nigeria. He further stated that,
the essence of organizing the monthly dialogue is to create a platform for the sub-grantees and
those who have an interest in the area to discuss ideas and learn from each other. “Corruption
and lack of accountability are the major obstacles towards the country’s growth and
development”. He stated. At the end, Malam Ya’u said, for citizens to effectively fight
corruption “we need one another, we need to collaborate with others working in area and
share our ideas.”
Sharing his experience on the different tools and mediums he uses in demanding for
accountability and fighting corruption, Mu’azu Alhaji Modu said in Yobe State his organization
selected 30 young people from 30 communities in six local governments in the state and
trained them on how to track Basic Health Care Funds. Also Mr. Modu said part of what they
are doing are advocacy visits to respective government agencies such as Yobe Primary
HealthCare Development Agency, Yobe State Contributory HealthCare Management Agency to
ensure what are being budgeted have reach the common people. Moreover, to ensure a robust

conversation between governments and citizens, Mr. Modu said they provided a platform
where citizens and government officials discuss issues affecting their communities.
Another panelist on the discussion, Mustapha Bulama of DailyTrust said there are many
informal ways that messages especially on anti-corruption could be sent to public, some of
these are through cartoons, illustrations and animations. Bulama said people find it hard to
read long articles on the internet, but when issues of corruption and fraud are simplified
through cartoons, people tend to understand it and appreciate it more. Bulama also said
creating awareness among people and reorientation especially on anti-corruption fight is very
important. The speaker also mentioned that using cartoons to display the negative affect of
vote buying is another way to sensitize the public about the importance of voting of competent
leaders in the country. At the end he mentioned that social media such Twitter, Facebook and
Instagram are some of the best platforms to reach young people and send messages to
government officials.
The last speaker, Joshua Alabi of KININSO KONCEPTS also discussed on the platforms he uses in
creating awareness on anti-corruption, accountability and electoral processes. Joshua said using
art and theatre for storytelling not in the way of entertainment but in changing the narrative of
the governance in the country is very important. Mr. Alabi said, as part of their efforts to
create awareness in the area of accountability and good governance they are transforming
stories into educative films around accountability and good governance. He further said,
collaboration with other stakeholders in the area such Nollywood Actors/Actress, Young people
and social media influencers is another way they are using to educate the public.
At the end participants asked questions and made comments.


Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) is a capacity-building civil Society organization whose activities cover research, advocacy, training, and publicity in all areas of ICT for development and good governance. It’s in the light of the above that the organisation paid a courtesy visit to the Women’s Rights Advancement & Protection Alternative (WRAPA). WRAPA Being an organisation committed to increasing women’s access to justice, by actualising women’s legal rights in public and private spaces, CITAD deem it necessary to pay a courtesy visit for familiarity, building relationships and possible collaboration for the betterment of our communities.

The courtesy visit which took place on Monday 7th February 2022 at the WRAPA headquarter office Abuja, had in attendance CITAD programme officer Yesmin Salako, technical officer Muhammad Yahya Bello and Usman Isah, Programme manager WRAPA Umma Ribi, Yemisi WRAPA project coordinator, WRAPA finance officer Shafiu and Mal. Muhammad. Yesmin shared CITAD activities which has been an ongoing activity in the FCT, which includes ICT training in the FCT rural communities ICT centre, GBV and child abuse sensitization, peer education training, community networks projects aimed at breaking the digital divide, social audit & FOI training for FCT rural communities activists, promotion of transparency and accountability in the governance and electoral process through engaging community youth in monitoring of electoral processes in their surroundings. WRAPA representatives were pleased to be informed on the in depth work CITAD is doing especially at the grass root level ensuring no one is left behind irrespective of gender, tribe, religion, class or age. WRAPA also expressed how it had engaged in several activities with CITAD in the past to include the summer digital institute, Inspiring Leadership or mentorship programmes (ILERIS) among others.

To this end, WRAPA showed the need to rekindle the partnership between CITAD and WRAPA for effective and a better impact in the societies where we work. WRAPA therefore requested for CITAD to send a portfolio of all our activities, so they could figure out where to key in.




Centre for Information Technology and Development and Library Aid Africa, with support from Action Aid launched an ICT centre and library in Pasepa community, Bwari Area council, FCT. The launch took place on Thursday 3rd February, 2022; the team paid a condolence visit to the palace in solidarity for dead of their community king.

The launch started with an introduction of staffs, members of the high table and community members. A welcome address was given by CITAD programme officer Yesmin Salako who appreciated and welcomed everyone to the launch of the library and ICT centre, she applauded the community members who took charge of the project and saw to the library set up being a reality, stating that all the vendors (carpenter, electrician, and artist) all came from the community, indicating that there is ownership of the project by the community. There was a goodwill message from Dr. Oluchi Iche Kalu from National Library of Nigeria (NLN), who commended the efforts of CITAD, AAN and LAA on setting up a library at a rural community, she explained that it is one of the goal of the National Library is to see that the art of reading is taken place at the grass root level. The president of Women Entrepreneurs Development Forum (WEDF); Hajiya Halima Zubairu Dambatta also delivered a good will message, the organization spoke on most of its humanitarian activities in the community, and were excited to see more projects going in the community, WEDF also promised to impact the community positively while working together with every development partner working to see to the development of the community.

Action Aid Director of programmes; Hajiya Suwaiba Muhammad Dankabo, delivered a lecture on Action Aid perspective of development. While delivering her lecture she said “The objective of the program is enhancing technological skills as well as breaking barriers to digital development. We want to see a situation whereby everyone in Nigeria has digital access and are able to connect to the world, irrespective of their location, sex, gender and status”. She further explained that the organization is partnering CITAD which is providing technical support for successful implementation of the project. CITAD was able to work with the community after our mobilization making sure people provide the space. In partnership, we brought in the technical equipment while CITAD is bringing in the technical support in terms of expertise and digital literacy and then we connected these people to a forum in New York where they see what is happening in the world and then they see how young people are mobilizing and then they are able to take their issues in the community and engage with their duty bearers.  And then they are also engaging in digital campaigning”.

The launch proceeded with a speech from the Community leader Alhaji Mohammed Pasepa who gave a community brief, involvement in the project and sustainability plans. Mohammed Pasepa said that the ICT centre which was established by CITAD has led to many development in the community as they plan to convert the centre to a school where people pay to learn how to operate the computer. He said the community members use the centre to apply for jobs, they print community works and also students planning to write JAMB can practice with the computers before proceeding to write the exam. He appreciated the set-up of the library while involving the community in the construction purpose, he also added that other students or children from neighbouring communities will benefit from the library.

To officially launch the library and ICT centre CITAD, AAN directors, representatives of the National Library, President WEDF, community leader and the children from the community proceeded for a ribbon cutting. Group photographs were taken, refreshments were served and gifts were received from AAN and WEDF by the community librarian Abubakar Ibraheem. 

The program came to an end with a vote of thanks delivered by CITAD assistant programmes officer Mubarak Ekute, he thanked everyone for gracing the event and making the day a memorable one. 

The media links are; 


Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) is a  capacity-building civil Society organization whose activities cover research, advocacy, training, and publicity in all areas of ICT for development and good governance. It is in the light of the above that CITAD paid a courtesy visit to Wazobia Fm Abuja 99.5

The objective of the visit, is considering Wazobia FM Being a critical stakeholder in the FCT we deem it necessary to pay a courtesy visit to the Radio Station for familiarity, and building relationships as it patterns our activities and then possible collaboration for the betterment of our communities.

CITAD programme officer Yesmin Salako, expounded in details the activities of CITAD in Abuja particularly the FCT rural communities. The organisation program officer was delighted to know of CITAD advocacy on land grabbing issues in the FCT, and also it works around Gender Based Violence (GBV) and most importantly the Digital skills training at the grass root level. The discussion was fruitful  and the organisation hoped collaboration between the organisations.

CITAD staffs appreciate them and a group photograph was taken immediately after the meeting.

In attendance for the meeting was  Yesmin Salako, Mubarak Ekute, Usman Isah and Bashir Usman, Wazobia fm program manager Big Moh, and the communication director.


Centre For Information Technology And Development (C ITAD) organized a monthly We-You Pro Influencers’ meeting The meeting started with welcome remarks by Malam Isah Garba, Senior program Officer, CITAD Who represented by Executive Director Malam Y.Z Yau Where he thanks everyone for attending the meeting on behalf of CITAD Board, and the Executive Director
Malam Isah gave the objectives of the meeting, as:
To formally introduce the ambassadors/ Influencers and get them know each other and be familiarized with each other.
To introduce the project, its objectives to the influencers
To design and agree of a work plan for the ambassadors/influencers
To agree on the activities and methodology of conducting their activities in their various localities.

To share the Demand charter with the ambassadors
Then John Otaro give brief explanation of the project and the new slogan for the campaign for the inclusion of Women and Youth in party leadership and elected positions nin Kano state. The new slogan is
Hope, Action, Progress, which has the symbol of traffic light as its logo and urge that hence the campaign will be identified with these symbols. the slogan and the logo According to John the project is aimed at contributing to an inclusive and responsive democratic process and outcomes through citizens’ led actions towards 2023 general elections in Nigeria. The duration:the campaign is a build up to the 2023 elections. Strategic Objectives
To enhance peoples’ power in democratic and inclusive governance.
To Enhance democratic choices for citizens.
To mobilize a critical mass of young people and women leading disruptive campaigns towards translating citizens’ demands into policy actions in Kano State.
To ensure that Citizens’ capacity is strengthened to demand accountability
to enhance capacity of government and its institutions for gender responsive service delivery to strengthen the capacities of young people and women on campaign strategies, policy, and influencing towards taking leadership positions to drive positive change
To engender an inclusive decision-making political process that reflects the priorities of the young people and women in kano state.
PROJECT SCOPE: The project will be working in the following Local government areas in kano including :including Bichi, Dala, Fagge, Gwale, Kano Municipal, Nassarawa, Sumaila, Tarauni.
During the meeting the Youth and women political charter of demand was shared to the influencers which each gave his personal and organizational commitment to amplify the demand of the women and youth and their messages towards 2023 general elections.
The demand and messages are:
We collectively agreed and came up with a charter of demand that will remove political blockages for the effective participation of youth and women in politics in Kano State. Therefore, we are submitting this charter which contains the demands of youth and women in Kano State ahead of the 2023 general elections.
Citizens demand at least the allocation of 35% of all positions in political party leadership and elective positions to youth and women.
Political Parties should subsidize /offer free forms for youth and women aspirants respectively
Media houses should support youth and Women aspirants and contestants in amplifying their manifestations in their programmes.
Media houses should support youth and Women aspirants and contestants in amplifying their manifestations in their programmes.
Communities and stakeholders should find ways to identify credible youth and women in their communities and support them to aspire as candidates.
We are soliciting the support of Religious leaders to lend their voice and influence in support of youth and women candidature through their sermons and preaching, especially come out with the roles youth and women played in the history of religions and societal development
Media, Civil Society Organizations and community Based Organizations should sensitize the public on the need for women and youth participation in politics
Security agencies should stick to the rules of engagements and non partisanship in all their engagements with political parties and politicians
Community Influencers should support young and female politicians to gain positions in political parties and win elective positions
Religious and Traditional leaders should engage in voter education to help in providing safer political space that will encourage youth and women participations
Business communities and individuals should support credible candidates among youth and women, lacking the financial capabilities to contest elections

Both in the socio-political and economic sectors, women and youth in Kano State are not well represented: therefore, women and young aspirants need to be supported by all.
Every decision making that does not have women and youth representation is not inclusive: stakeholders should support women and youth for inclusive decision making
As gender based violence almost becomes a norm, women and youth need to be part of the decision making process to raise and support decisions that will fight the menace better
Inclusion of youth and women in to key political and elected positions means inclusion of about 61% of the population into the process, support that for a better and inclusive society
The high number of out of school children in Kano can easily be mitigated if youth and women are involved
There is nothing for us without us, include youth and women into leadership positions to get their buy in and contributions in all policies and decisions to be taken on their behalf.
The next meeting is scheduled to hold in the third week of February 2022.


The program was hosted by Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) with 50 participants from different communities within and outside Kano state.
Opening Statements
The meeting was opened by Malam Ahmad Abdullahi Yakasai on behalf of the Executive Director of CITAD. In his statements, he hinted the importance of the program, orientating the applicants on the project’s expectations while congratulating them as successful applicants. He emphasized that the issue of women’s participation in ICT and digital entrepreneurships in Northern states continued to be of serious concern. However, due recognition needed to be given to the progress that has been made on the new project, where 50 successful applicants out of 596 applicants is a clear example that the women and girls need to tighten up their belt in order to become self-sustainable.
Yakasai added that, being a project supported by EU/ACT, it doesn’t mean we empower women and girls by giving the money, but only empower them with skills and mentorship on how to promote their businesses off and online and to become relevant in digital entrepreneurship. For emphasis to women participation, this gives a clear impression that there is need of participation of young women and girls and people with disabilities in our localities to have a democratic society free of hunger which is achievable through initiatives like this. Said Ahmad.
He finally urged that the applicants should be punctual, avoid irregularities or inconsistency in attending the training, avoid inclusion of uninvited applicants and must have a sound character and be focused. He pointed out that women’s movements should also be seen as having a representational role to play; both in terms of substantive and descriptive representation.

Malam Ibrahim Nuhu, the Program Officer of the project, thanked the EU/ACT British council for collaboration with CITAD to support the training. In his statement, after presenting the concept of the project, the courses to be offered and the duration, he identified major achievements and challenges in promoting women’s equal participation in processes at all levels. He finally explained three (3) major project expectations at the end of the training in context of the project, the participants should have the necessary required skills in order to be able to impact on other women and girls in the society at any time and any moment.
Should have a relative knowledge on ICT and entrepreneurship skills
Should register their business names with Corporate Affairs Commission (C.A.C) and other concerned regulatory agencies related to their businesses to have a legal back up and;
The participants should be participating in e-mentoring and be meeting from time to time for mentoring to discuss on how to expand their businesses, and search for other job opportunities.
Malama Zainab Aminu, the Gender Officer, presented on some factors that hinders northern women in acquiring skills based on experiences are bigotry, extreme poverty, lack of education, lack of parental and husband supports due to culture and tradition that exposed them to gender discrimination and the necessity of the mechanisms is for promoting women in entrepreneurship skills even in their homes. The Digital Livelihood Training will be an one of the effective agents for this transformation. She also mentioned some mechanisms for increasing women’s participation in ICTs and entrepreneurships acquisition skills;
Mindset and zeal: When we change our negative thinking to positive, it increases attention and social movements.
Timing is an important consideration, is a sign of gaining momentum
Training and skill development: Training and mentoring will increase efficiency and ensure sustainability.
The training arrangements was briefed by the Training Officer of CITAD, Kamilu Isa on how it is commencing and the rules behind the training to ensure safety and avoid any irregularities that may hinder the objective to be achieved.
The Project finance officer, Kamal Alhassan Garba explained on how to go along with the logistics in order to adopt clear and transparent rules to ensure effective training by paying them transport fare weekly.
On the part of visitors, Hajiya Hauwa Ibrahim Gashash, from EU/ACT gave some encouraging advises to the participants around putting their best to learn what is the skills and become changed at the end of the program from local business owners and idle women to an established modern entrepreneurs. She sighted some examples of some few achieved women and encouraged these set to emulate the passion and become one of them. A session for question and answers was provided, the beneficiaries asked some questions and made comments of appreciations and their questions were cleared by the CITAD officials. They also contributed in encouraging themselves to increase the era of enterprise.

Some of the issues that occurred during the meeting were absence of invited concerned guest and government officials, which also leads to late commencement.

Use ICT training as a tool in education and training efforts, in particular to overcome the digital divide between men and women in the use of new technologies and to provide women with equal access to information.
The beneficiaries should ensure that they have equal opportunities during training, such as providing access to the ICT facilities, spending weekly transport fare wisely and ensure punctuality and regularity.

The session closed at 2:47pm, refreshments served and transport fare to be paid via banks.


The training is part of the continuation of providing support to micro-organizations toward the establishment of the community networks in the identified seven communities of Bauchi, Kaduna and the FCT. It was attended by the media (print and electronics), the CBOs and other professionals that made various presentations during the weeklong programme.
The project has three segments and these are defined as Work packages 1-3: Work Package one: enhancing the capacity of the meso organization (which is CITAD) to provide training, mentoring and other support for the micro-organizations. Secondly, Work Package 2: training, mentoring and support for seven micro-organizations to aspire to build and or consolidate on their community network projects. The last segment is Work Package 3: work with various stakeholders to address legal, regulatory and policy issues that inhibit the flourishing of community networks in the country.
Therefore. This training of organizations falls under the second package and it was a planned event that drew carefully selected participants from seven communities under the project (Leleyi Gwari, Pasepa, Tungan Ashere, Dakwa, Itas, Jama’are and Fanstuam). Being part of the capacity building programmes (under WP2) for micro-organizations, apart from the physical training CITAD is deploying a longer period of online interaction that will go beyond the physical training and will continue with another stage of mentorship.
Keynote address was made by the representative of Galaxy Backbone, while goodwill messages were delivered online by Miss Edith and in attendance, by another representative of Fantsuam Foundation, Kaduna.
To introduce community organizations (micro-organizations) to the fundamentals and technical aspects of community network
Create synergy among the micro-organizations to advocate/influence establishment of community network
Expose trainees to sustainability strategy toward establishing and managing community networks
The training was conducted through series of presentations, demonstrations, group works and interactions at plenary between trainees and trainers. This method allowed for flow of lessons and sharing of experiences among micro-organizations.
The school was run on two sessions per day, morning and afternoon. This is to provide enough time for assimilation of the various courses taught. At interval, two breaks were observed for brain refresher.

Opening remark:
The Executive Director In his opening remark and background of the project, Engr Y Z Ya’u, stated that over the last 2 years CITAD has been working tirelessly to catalyze the emergence of community networks in Nigeria. Considering that, there is no policy to guide the implementation of Community networks in the country, CITAD took a step to engage the regulators such as Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), the ministry of communications and digital economy as well as other relevant agencies to ensure that appropriate policy is developed for Community Networks to run in the Country. He also stated that part of the objective of the school is to train champions with technical skills on how they can design, deploy and manage community networks. This made CITAD to deliberately have in the curriculum, sustainability strategy for sustenance of the network even at the exit of CITAD. The school will run in two phases, the first phase is an intensive physical one-week residential training which start today, followed by four-month online training which is part of the phase two activities.
Goodwill messages:
Some of the partners that work with CITAD offered Goodwill messages at commencement of the training. Some of these organizations included the Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI), Fantsuam foundation in Kaduna and a member of the advisory committee, Mrs Edith Udeagwu. In her remarks, the Fantsuam representative called for scaling up the School of Community Network to a tertiary Institution (level) that will serve as a sole academic environment which will provide the basic skills for establishing and managing community networks across the country.
Keynote address: By Abdul-Malik Suleiman, Group Head, Regional Offices, Galaxy Backbone.
The opening session was also supported with a keynote address by Mr. Abdulmalik Suleman of Galaxy Backbone Abuja. He spoke on “creating policy framework for the emergence of community networks”. The speaker stated that at Galaxy Backbone one of their objectives is to help in connecting the underserved communities. In this regard they were able to make some significant progress where they connected over 13 states across the nation under the first phase of the National Information Communication Infrastructure Backbone (NICTIB). He also stated that they have commenced the second phase of the project which upon completion, they hope to connect more communities across the 36 states. Mr Suleiman appreciated the effort of CITAD for setting up the School of Community Networks, which according to Galaxy Backbone is another step that will help to strengthen the impact of shared internet experience and shared Network in the Nation.
Highlights of the keynote includes:
For Galaxy Backbone, one of the objectives of why it was set up, was to help in connecting the underserved communities. The Backbone made some significant progress in this regard with the “connection” of over 13 states across the nation under the first phase of the National Information Communications Technology Infrastructure Backbone (NICTIB).
Galaxy Backbone has commenced the second phase of this project which on completion will see it connecting more communities across the 36 states of our dear nation Nigeria.
According to him, the great work the Centre for Information Technology Development (CITAD) has continued to do especially with the setting up of this National School of Community Networks, is another step in the right direction that will help strengthen the impact of shared internet experiences and shared networks in Nigeria.

First School training was presented online by Dr Yusuf Abdulkadir
Topic: What is Spectrum and how it is allocated

The trainees were taken through “What is spectrum? Categories of spectrum, who allocate spectrum, how it is being allocated, how to manage the spectrum as well as the trading and leasing of the spectrum”.
Trainees understood the categories of bands: –
Low band: this radiation travels long distance with minimal signal interruption.
Medium band: provision of a mix coverage and capacity
High band
Who allocates spectrum?
International telecommunications union (ICU) is responsible for allocating spectrum.
How spectrum is allocated?
Basically, the spectrum is allocated on “economies of scale”. This means that, the international community apply some level of politicking n the allocation of spectrum.
How spectrum is allocated?
This is taken and utilized by individual nations/administrations based on peculiarities.
How do you manage spectrum? These is managed in two ways:
Methods of allocating spectrum:
Dynamic spectrum access
Static spectrum access
Emerging trends in spectrum allocation:
Reduction in requirement for infrastructure in the deployment of spectrum
Extending of spectrum to many unserved and underserved

Motivational theories by participation:
Main aim of the programme e.g, on the about 80 million Nigerians don’t have access to internet. This is a provoking issue that require necessary skills to be injected to larger citizens.
There is need for a more broader awareness creation on the need for community network
(Refer to reading materials on power point)

The Second session of Dr Yusuf (applying spectrum allocation)
This is a continuation of the first session on spectrum and the highlights includes: This part covered areas such as achievements of spectrum allocation, 2G/3G coverage, 4G coverage, value of telecom sector and managing spectrum allocation.
Applying spectrum allocation –
Most of the spectrum allocation in use today are not easily available because they are licensed
For any use to apply and use the unlicensed spectrum, this will require equipment certification and must be complied with technical requirements
There is significant interference in the use of ISM band because anyone can use it and this led to the crowding of the space by users
Spectrum allocation model:
International link
National backbone
Licensed shared access (LSA):
Additional licensing with exclusive sharing agreements
LSA is necessary when the spectrum cannot be released within a reasonable time
Licensed-exempt spectrum
Shared use among multiple technology
Idela for local access, short range devices, and opportunistic use for mobile broadband
Spectrum trading and leasing:
Operators are allowed to trade or lease their exclusively assigned spectrum usage rights to other users
Goal to increase efficiency in the use of spectrum
Conclusion: The class was concluded by opening space for interaction. The facilitator appreciated participants for opening space to engage the trainees on spectrum and how they can identify issues for advocacy to support the establishment of effective community network in their respective locations.
Why the issue of license is not protected?

As community representatives, what can people with less technical skills do about spectrum?
Liaison with organist ions like CITAD, making specific requests of information from NCC through associations, etc will open space for link with experts.
On the three bands, what other advantage does the high band have other others?

About ITU – are they in Nigeria? How can our communities get access to it?
How is it useful in Nigeria?
The work of ITU is well known in the telecom industry as a regulatory body. An agenda was drawn for allowing the ITU to effectively work in Nigeria, lately in 2019 and Nigeria is a signatory to it.
The ITU – what is their relationship with government especially on spectrum allocation?
It is largely seen for the purpose of economic gain. The spectrum is mostly allocated based on economies of scale and government focus more on this.


The programmes started with a recap of day-one and some of the areas revised included:
Understanding the international regulatory bodies such as the ITU
Spectrum and how it is allocated
The role of Galaxy in promoting digital inclusion in Nigeria
Spectrum allocation and its management

The second course in the school was introducing trainees to “The TVWS”. This was facilitated by Engineer Kabir Ahmed, (highlights):
TVWS – transmission overview
The TVWS support the provision or access to quality network where obstacles like the hills and valleys doesn’t impact it. But there is density and it may affect it a little (not significantly). The degradation of such obstacles doesn’t affect the accessing of good signals.
For locations where it is remote like rural (living in clusters), it may be difficult because they cannot pay for the services. With TVWS, one tower can serve a lot of clustered communities. The TVWS is meant for not more than 10km (ideal for CN).

The TVWS is considered as an emerging technology to take care of immediate need especially for rural communities with remote or unstable connectivity and in some instances for unconnected areas. This stand to be more useful to the over 60% of the world’s population who don’t have access to modern (education, healthcare, digital communication, business and finance & employment). This alarming percentage require effort to reduce it through provision of alternative connectivity avenue.
WHY TVWS In Africa:
Some of the reasons why internet penetration in Africa is not enough: Many factors contribute to the continued poor or absence of connectivity in some areas/communities. Many reasons that lead to this problem includes – (poverty, corruption, poor awareness, etc). There is a need for additional technology in Africa to support internet access and this justifies the need for the TVWS.
Why CSOs need to advocate for access to internet
It will improve economic growth
Enhance spectrum utilization (a lot of spectrums is under-utilized)
It will help in bridging some educational gaps in rural areas
Another fundamental reason why CBOs should canvass in getting clear definition of using TVWS is
Lack of adequate wireless in the country.
Very high cost of installation
In the process of installation, there are different types of masts relevant for each installation and also specific to location. There is need to consider the following factors when installing mast: –
User need to know that, there are four operators in Nigeria (Glo, MTN, Etisalat and Nmobile)
Whether to apply the concept of c-location (work with multiple service providers)
In terms of users (the antenna has its capacity)
Why are antennas always directional? Satellite technology differs and this is always on two bands. Mindful, user should understand that, weather affects direction in the use of antenna.
A global momentum – worldwide trials and demos. This refers to the deployment of TVWS, and Nigeria has not expressed interests in the use of TVWS for now. Some countries have completed (applied the use of TVWS), some are at planning stage while others are on interest stage. The potentials are available in Nigeria but unutilized.
Completed or on-going
Expression of interests

The SWOT analysis of TVWS:
The strengths: one of the greatest advantages is the use of telemedicine as introduced by some countries such as India. This leads to –
Extensive nation-wide TV coverage
Digital migration already commenced
The weaknesses: In countries such as Nigeria, the absence of such framework hampers lots of interests from many potential users.
Lack of regulatory framework

Opportunities if the TVWS: Some of the opportunities that can be leveraged upon includes: –
Availability of un-utilized frequencies. Potential users can drive on this and bridge the existing space on TVWS
Enhance education within the rural areas
Platform for new wireless broadband entrance
Interference from the existing broadcasting houses. However, this can be avoided when you have your frequency data. Knowledge of availability of such data will avoid duplication in terms of issuing the frequency to another service provider.

In Nigeria and at present, only university of Ilorin is about to set up the use of TVWS in their school campus.

What can the coalition (CBOs) do to avoid collision with the big players in the course of advocating for establishment of community networks in the country?

Evidence-based advocacy can help in dousing possible resistance by some big-wigs in the telecom industry. Also, dialogue/interface between communities and others such as service providers, NCC etc will reduce blockages.

More players may be encouraged to come in because they have the capital, just to make profit. The application of TVWS will generate innovation, just by trying to apply the TVWS. The network gap needs to be addressed.
NCC has presently issued out a draft document to the application of the technology (TVWS).

There is need for local content research that suits our (Nigerian) society.
Supportive regulatory environment.
Stakeholder engagement (engage the community members).
Financial support from individual, government and service providers.

As an alternative source of power to support the establishment of community network and reduce cost of running engines, renewable energy is desirable in the country.

General recommendations:
Organizations should support the development of TVWS usage condition for regularization
USPF should support the use of TVWS IN THE COUNTRY (especially for rural communities). The fund needs to work for communities
Monitor the trials of existing TVWS in any part of the country (by government to entrench compliance)
Detailed study of rural issues needs to be conducted. This refers to proper mapping of communities (to provide all the necessary details/needs of communities)
CBOs to advocate to State governments on the need to allocate budget line to support deployment and use of TVWS
The telecom sector (public and private) should seek funding from sources such as the Worl Bank, etc
Train and develop human resource for TVWS deployment
Setting standards for use of TVWS by regulatory body, NCC
Monitoring the network performance. This can be conducted independently by organizations like CITAD and other NGOs for a more reliable report/outcome
Group work segment:
The trainees were grouped into three, each with a specific task for delivery. Presentations were later made at plenary. Generic question was given to all groups as outlined below:

It is expected that all groups will identify problems in their communities when deciding to apply the TVWS as a solution to a problem. The groups below are expected to areas to be studied are:

Address the problems,
Benefits of TVWS to communities,

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups are to work on

Presentations: Group one (Education) and the Contents are;
Challenges and benefits
Solutions to the identified problems/challenges

Stakeholders include government agencies, community leaders, students, teachers, etc.

Lack of policy

Economic growth
Improvement of education in the community

Need for spectrum database
Proper management

Group two
This group used a community called KIYAWA as a case study to identify the relevance of applying TVWS especially in a disaster-prone situation in the community. Some of the stakeholders identified by the group includes the SEIMU, LG Chair, traditional leaders, religious groups, NCC, NITDA, NGOs/CSOs, etc.

Deployment of the TVWS: this can be through
Fund raising
Community mobilization
International donors
Political office holders
Identified beneficiaries:
Towns neighboring Kiyawa community

In a more-simpler tone, the deployment of TVWS can reduce the sufferings of communities due to disaster through the use of the TVWS. This is possible because it can aid the use of antenna to provide the necessary network in a community that will further, be used to communicate or seek for help/assistance in a state of need.

Group three Health

Lack of advocacy by the CSOs to attract support

Lack of connectivity

Uncompleted projects by governments


Reduction in digital barrier

Promotes distance learning opportunities

Proposal on health issues for support

Building the capacity of CSOs/CBOs

Addressing the issue of digital literacy

Social media campaign

Abolishing of favoritism in health sector

A video was played that depicts the relevance of TVWS especially in Africa where the digital gap is wide and the need to bridge the gap came out from the clip, vividly. The video highlighted how the application of TVWs became useful in a disaster community, educationally disadvantaged communities and similar communities that require quality education. The outcomes of the video are expected to serve as advocacy issues for the Micro-organizations toward a successful community network.

Afternoon session
“VSAT Installation”
Engineer Bello Abdulhamid

VSAT Installation and its maintenance:
Highlights of the topics included: How VSAT looks like, categories of VSAT hardware, how it is installed, managed and the requirements for installation.

The VSAT is technically referred to a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) and is purposely designed to provide internet services to all users. The users can both be in rural or urban depending the location of the user.

How small is the VSAT?
Facilitator used images to demonstrate what a VSAT looks like and how it is installed. The weight of the outdoor hardware may be anything from 50kg to 500kg including the mouthing hardware. It is characterized by a very small “aperture” and the cost of equipping the aperture is higher than the cost of its maintenance. This need to be understood by potential users.

There are two groups of VSAT hardware:
Outdoor unit assembly
Indoor unit assembly

Few things to consider before installation of VSAT and these are:
Equipment needed for the installation (specific)
Knowledge of installation
Equipment required for the installation
Outdoor unit (dish, the radio, receiver, the modem, need for a clear sky to avoid obstruction,)
Indoor unit ()
While there is need for any installer to have a compass that will aid him/her to know the direction of signal.

VSAT Installation is covered/regulated by private sector
VSAT is powered by sun with a guarantee of up to 15 years
One of the advantages of VSAT is its installation in a place where there is no internet. The VSAT will provide better access to the use of internet provision. Here, one can use his google internet to identify the best place suitable for the installation.
Why do user encounter disconnection when there is cloud?? This was responded thus: that analogue signals have tolerance than the digital. This means that, the analogue digital provision tolerates cloud and thunder especially during rainy season. There is less obstruction unlike the digital signal which easily responds to cloud and other environmental factors that distracts network. Each particular signal has a specific location or direction.

(See full reading materials provided for full lectures)
ICT Policy landscape in Nigeria and community networks (opportunities and challenges)
Engr Usman Maaruf Yakubu

Background of the presentation: this presentation comprises of about 20 different areas under the telecommunications. They are (National Digital Economy Policy & Strategy, partnership, infracos, regulatory landscape, NCC Act, ICT structure, postal services, ICT structure in Nigeria broadcasting, ICT structure in Nigeria NITDA, community network – a way to bridge the digital gap, the SDGs, benefits of CN, Challenges of CN, characteristics of CN and Why Community Networks in Nigeria, Challenges in the Regulatory Terrain and How ready is the Terrain, start-up barriers, Registration, Licensing, Permitting, and Compliance, Taxes, Regulatory/Licensing, and Import Fees, financing, Spectrum Difficulties, Spectrum Scarcity and Inefficient Use of Spectrum, Expense of Spectrum Access, What laws do you need to comply with,

Communities need structure and most be organized before they get a recognized and acceptable community network. There must be adequate information about any community before establishing a community network center. This information must be holistic that can depict what a community is generally (socially, economically, politically).

About six bodies are involved in the development and implementation of ICT policy in Nigeria. They are (NCC, NITDA, NBC, NIPOST, NiComSat and the federal ministry of communication and digital economy). However, there are distinct differences between one and another. For instance, NIPOST regulate activities such as postings of letters and other local dispatches from one place to another within Nigeria. NBC regulate the activities of media especially the radio and television. While, NITDA and the federal ministry of communications and digital economy regulates activities that revolve around service provision like the network coverage provided by companies such as MTN, Glo, Etisalat, etc.

Policymakers and regulators can help reach the next billions unconnected through innovative changes and through community network initiatives, helping to close the digital divide. To unleash the full potential community networks, policymakers should consider innovative ways to license Community Networks and provide meaningful access. This includes:
Streamline or Eliminate Onerous Regulatory Requirements, especially those that are not applicable to small, community-based networks.
Provide Tax, Customs, Regulatory, and Licensing Fee Exemptions. These fees and duties are difficult for community network operators to afford and can delay or prevent their development.
Enhance Transparency. Regulators should provide clear, public guidance on the specific policies and regulatory requirements (and exemptions) for community networks.
ICTs contributed about 12.45% in the 2020 budget of the FGN.

National digital economy policy and strategy: The federal government has put in place the following polices to regulate various activities under the ICTs.
Solid infrastructure (provides protection against network/service interference)
Service infrastructure
Indigenous content development and adoption
Digital society and emerging technologies
Soft infrastructure (this covers issues such as providing protection against abuse of person’s rights), ethics

Generally, for any community network to effectively be operated and managed, it must be fully owned by the community. This also means that they have to be into business because the NCC considered registration of communities with such intent only when they are into making sales/profit.

Regulatory landscape: It needs to be noted that, there were previously total fixed telephone lines and there were less than 400, 000 lines in years back. This is more evident prior to 1999 and regular internet users were less than 200, 000 at that time. While, in year 2000, the FGN adopted the national IT policy called NIT policy. To open and operate a business café, NCC provides license, etc. This provided opportunities for individuals to come into the communications industry more than before.

Practical session on searching for NCC Act (online).: nccarena

Lesson conclusion:
The session was closed with a call to trainees to understand that, there is a law which prescribes cyber criminality. The journey of Nigeria’s movement to the digital age is quite not steady due to weak political will and this requires deliberate and collective effort to move the process forward. There is need also, for mix of technology to for fiber optics to connect communities that are digitally disadvantaged.

Technology options
By Engr Rabiu Haruna

Trainees were taken through the various options available and other issues around community networks. As a base for understanding the subject, trainees were (as an illustration) exposed to the shift made from the analogue system to a more digital age, eg. the use of 090 in the telephony industry which marks a new shift in technology. Also, the frequency and techniques in usage differs and the limitation in capacity as well.
The technology shift tries to achieve much especially on the movement in the generations from 1st to today’s 5G. lots of changes from the previous mechanical and electrical gadgets are also clear examples of shift from the analogue age to present digital generation. Mobile network serves as a hub for linking the user and the service provider. However, there are at times that no service provider can provide up to 100% network without interference. Some of the constraints of which are purely natural. Some issues can however, be resolved e.g, study and adjustment of the transmission power, etc.

Between the space and water, which one electric current flow/move faster?

For any internet service provision, there must be service provider’s issuance

Any mechanism to serve as an alternative to communities that are not connected especially where even the fiber is difficult to be shared?

Spectrum management is the sole responsibility of the government. the operator must certify all the needed requirements.

Micro-organizations should be a bit more critical/proactive on advocacy around community network (the sustainability aspect)

For sustainability purpose, there is need to agree on a reasonable (affordable) fee that community members will be charged for any service to be rendered by a CN. This charge/proceed will be used to sustain the CN.

The towers around our neighborhood are meant to provide the necessary networks needed to our phones/cell phones

The service provider has a duty to make profit and make his business sustainable

Various types of electromagnetics:
Electrical and electromagnetic telecommunication technologies include the following:
The telegraph
Microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellite and the internet amongst others
Types of electromagnetic radiation:
Visible light, etc
Group work and outcomes:
The facilitator grouped trainees into three and assigned different tasks which was later presented at the plenary. Questions, observations and comments were made thereafter;

Group two task:
List the different types of transmission networks available>

Group three task:
List the different types of radio access>

Some challenges of the telecommunication industry:
Poor or weak private investor’s participation in the country to support effective communication especially in the less advantaged communities
Weak willingness by government to support and protect public telecoms interests
Artificial low price in the telecoms sector
However, government is advised to have a regulated minimum price level to balance the sides of both service provider and customer.

Next steps: As part of the MoU signed between CITAD and the micro-organizations, the following were the next steps
CITAD will continue to provide mentoring to the organizations
CITAD to conclude the remaining courses not covered during the physical session at second phase
Micro-organizations will lead in community mobilization to further secure and consolidate community buy-in and support for the local community network initiative
Be responsible for preparing and submitting regular report of activities to CITAD
CITAD will provide training schedule for the second phase

End of training:
The training came to an end on day-four with the administration of post training evaluation forms to trainees. This was aimed at measuring their level of understanding/comprehension of the programme and what they actually learned as take-away. Similarly, a commitment form was signed by the trainees with a view to encourage them to be more proactive on promoting the initiative. The commitment charter is to trigger responsiveness from the trainees on their expected roles toward supporting the establishment of the Community Network. Study materials were provided to the trainees for further readings.

Mr Eseyin of Fantsuam foundation Kaduna offered vote of thanks on behalf of other trainees and the programme closed at about 5:00pm. The school sessions were covered on video, pictures and audio.


Policy regulations in Nigeria
Engr Usman Ma’aruf Yakubu, NITDA, Abuja

Technology Options
Engr Rabiu Haruna

Engr Kabir Ahmed

Applying Spectrum
Dr Yusuf Abdulkadir, NCC, Abuja

Copy of pre-Training evaluation form

Keynote Address
Engr Abdilmalik Suleman – Galaxy Backbone, Abuja

Reading list

Agenda for the training

VSAT installation and Maintenance
Engr Bello Abdullhamid

VSAT installation
Engr Bello Abdullhamid

Press conference
Engr Y Z Ya’u, CITAD

Media clip
Daylight publishers

Media clip (radio)
Freedom radio, Kaduna

Media clip
NNN, Kaduna

CITAD Restates Need to Develop Guidelines, Regulations for Operation of Community Networks in Nigeria

CITAD Restates Need to Develop Guidelines, Regulations for Operation of Community Networks in Nigeria

PRESS RELEASE: CITAD Urges Urgent Intervention in Community Network to Bridge Digital Divide

CITAD Advocate for National Policy on Community Network to bridge digital gap
The Campus Watch

CITAD Advocates For National Policy On Community Networks To Address Digital Divide


114 communities don’t have GSM signals in Nigeria —CITAD

114 Communities Don’t Have GSM Signals on Nigeria —CITAD
Nigerian Tribune Newspapers

114 communities don’t have GSM signals in Nigeria —CITAD

CITAD Launches the Nigerian School of Community Network
Nigerian Tracker

CITAD Launches the Nigerian School of Community Network

Pre-training evaluation form,

Post training evaluation form

NSCN Nigerian School of Community Network
TVWS Television White Space
CITAD Centre for Information Technology and Development
WP2 Work Package two
FCT Federal Capital Territory
CBO Community Based Organization
NCC Nigerian Communications Commission
A4AI Alliance for Affordable Internet
LSA Licensed Share Access
ITU International Telecommunications Union
SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
NITDA National Information Technology Development Agency
IT Information Technology
ICTs Information and Communication Technologies
NIPOST Nigerian Postal Services
NICTIB National Information Communication Infrastructure Backbone


Looking at how female journalists are everyday facing serious challenge, from cyberbullying and blackmail in order to silence their voice as journalists, coupled with the increasing use of online tools as important instruments for the practice of journalism, this has increased female journalists online vulnerability. A number of female journalists have become subject to privacy invasion. With government clamp down on the social media, journalists are forced to look for ways to bypass blockage. For example, in May, 2021 the Government of Nigeria suspended the operations of Twitter in the country, blocked access to the platform, advised mandatory discontinuation of the use of twitter handles by broadcast organizations and announced a jail term for anyone found using twitter in the period of the suspension. This at once may also expose journalists to falling into the traps of privacy invaders which is capable of undermining the ability of women journalists to practice their profession.

Female journalists in Nigeria are everyday facing challenges with access to online tools. Online harassment has become rampant coupled with hacking of their accounts by either hackers or government agencies who want silence their voices online. In many instances, their vulnerabilities arose in the sense that a large number of people in the community believe that it is a taboo for females to be online with the harsh judgement and harassment meted on them when they are journalists because the society does not recognized their rights. 

In view of the above, the Centre for information Technology and Development (CITAD) as part of its initiatives to create awareness on the safety and privacy online specially to the female journalists in the country had on the 14th and 15th of October, 2021 with support from Association for Progressive Communications (APC) organized a two day workshop to 10 females journalists from five (5) states of Northern Nigeria (Gombe, Adamawa, Kaduna Bauchi and Kano) with the title #KeepOurFemaleJournalistsSafeOnline at Flourish Hotel Gombe. 

This type of training is important to female journalists in the country because it will expose them to the dangers they are in both online and offline while practicing their profession, at the same time the training will help them to know how to protect themselves from attacks and hackers online. Moreover, the two today workshop was designed in a way that the participants will understand fully the different techniques and procedures to follow in order to stay safe online.  

As part of the initiative, on the 19th of August, 2021 CITAD had earlier trained online journalists in Kano state on safety and security online. The aim of the training was to build the capacity of the journalists and raise awareness about safety, security and threats that are associated to working online. 

The Objectives of the Two Day Workshop were:

  1. Build the capacity of the targeted women journalists to safely use the internet (including privacy protection) 
  2. Raise the awareness of the participants about safety and privacy online 
  3. Initiate some female journalists to join the campaign for digital rights and safety and privacy online for women 

Before the start of the training a pre-test was administered likewise after the workshop a post-test was administered to the participants in order to know the level of their knowledge and at the end see whether there is any changes in their understanding of the topics discussed. In the pre-test conducted, in every question asked almost 60% percent of the answers given were wrong while for the post-test the least gotten from the answers right was 85%. For example, when they were asked to mention any two personal Meta Data in the pre-test 90% of the participants got it wrong while in the post-test 100% got it right. Also when they were asked about bypass technology in the pre-test, 95% got it wrong while in the post-test 85% got it right. 

On the first day of the workshop, Mr. Ali Sabo who is the Campaigns and Communications Officer of the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) opened the workshop with a welcome address and the objectives of the training. Mr. Sabo stated that the workshop was part of the Centre’s initiative on digital inclusion programs and the CITAD’s effort in promoting women inclusion in both decision making on internet process and ensuring the safety of female journalists online. Mr. Sabo also urged the participants to pay attention on what was going to be discussed during the training so that they could be able to learn and pass on the knowledge to their fellow colleagues. 

The first technical session was facilitated by Dr. Mu’azu of the Department of Computer Engineering, Bayero University, Kano who took the participants through Understanding Online Gender Harassment. While making her presentation, Dr. Mu’azu said the overall picture of the situation relating to gender and technology has so far been that men have been dominating the field and have left the women behind. Discussing about the importance of women on the net, she stated that women are important actors in the development and to hold them back is to hold back the potential for economic growth. Explaining about the online harassment women face, Dr. Mu’azu said for those that frequently work with the internet, online harassment and cyber bullying are real, they happen tremendously to women at any time, again and again, and the worst online harassment has now gone beyond name calling to include stalking, and sexual harassment which is directly targeted at women. 

The second presentation was delivered by Engineer Kamaluddeen Umar, CITAD Technical Officer. Engineer Kamal discussed on the Privacy Online and its Protection. In the presentation, Mr. Umar started with general misconception people have about the internet which he said that many people think cyber-attacks were not very harmful, while others think other people will keep them safe on the Internet, or they were not important enough to be targeted. Mr. Umar said virtually everybody on the planet has his/her personal data i.e., name, address, pictures, email address, bank details, or medical information online which make people vulnerable to attacks if they didn’t safe guard their data carefully. At the end of his presentation, Mr. Kamaluddeen shared some tips that one could use to protect her/his data. 

The third presentation, Incognito Browsing was also taken by Engineer Kamaluddeen Umar. Here the participants were taken through the process of browsing safely, how they can take advantage of their browsers security that will alert users when there was security threat. Also in this presentation, the participants were taught how to install add-ons that can steer them away from threats. Moreover, the presenter went further to discuss ways to download with care, how to shop online safely, social media safety tips and how to stay safe on social media. At the end of the presentation, wireless Internet safety tips were highlighted. The first day of the workshop was close with practical activities on speedgeeking.

The second day of the workshop started with a recap of what has been discussed the previous day where each of the participants was asked to state one thing she had learnt from the previous presentations. Then Ali Sabo took the participants Feminists Internet Principles. In this presentation, reasons why feminists internet principles developed, how it came into being and its history were discussed by the presenter. Mr. Sabo also went further to explain the 17 Feminists Internet Principles to the participants. The second presentation on Bypass Technologies followed by Suhail Abdullahi. Mr. Abdullahil started by explaining what encryption is to the participants, its importance and how it is used. Then he took the participants through end-to-end encryption and file extension. Furthermore, Suhail discussed about VPN i.e. how it works and it different types and why individual should use VPN. At the end, Mr. Abdullahi talked about VPN providers and cautioned the participants to always use trusted VPN. In the second day also, Engineer Kamaluddeen discussed with participants Personal Meta Data.

During the training participants raised concerned over their privacy and safety and asked questions on how to be more secured and safe online. Some of the important points raised by the participants were:

  1. Elizabeth Kah Nange of Bauchi State Television Authority stated that the number of online attacks female journalists especially in the northern part of the country are receiving every day is one of the issue that is driving them away from online platforms such as twitter and Facebook and sometimes even WhatsApp
  2. Another concern raised by Maryam Bawa a reporter with Solacebase, an Online Newspaper based in Kano was that, females especially journalists and celebrities are being singled out for attacks and government is not doing much to protect them. She gave example with a scenario of what happened with one female celebrity in Kano, where she said her boyfriend shared her nude video online and she was banned from the industry but if this kind of scenario happened to the male actors such kind of punishment are not being served to them 
  3. Bilkisu Ado Zango, chairperson, Association of Women Journalists, Kano State Chapter said female journalists’ vulnerability online is growing everyday as their accounts are constantly being hacked and in many instances the hackers used the opportunities to post nudes pictures and videos. These she said have made many of them to avoid the platforms for fear of their names being ruined 
  4. While speaking on the sexual harassment female journalists face online, Yusuf Ojoma from Adamawa State shared on how men are everyday sending nudes pictures and videos via messenger and asking them to share same and if they refuse to do so they resort to attacks, names spoil, names calling and even sometimes lead to physical harm

Some of the questions asked and answered during the two day workshop were:   

  1. Shaharuza Umar Idris Hinna from Gombe ask on how one could know whether his/her is being hacked
  2. Another participants asked on the step to follow for two way verifications on Facebook and WhatsApp 
  3. While Su’uda Mustapha inquired about how one could create a strong password and ensure his/her account is not being compromised 
  4. With regard to online harassment, Sekyen Manasseh Dadik asked how they could handle online harassers and where to report them.

Feedbacks from the participants:

  1. Speaking after the two day workshop, Sekyen Manasseh Dadik of Africa Prime News (APN) stated that this is one of the best training she has ever attended, she continued to mentioned that part of what she has learn is to always be careful with her password and not share it with anyone no matter how close they are. Which she promised to share with her colleagues and family. 
  2. Fatima Lawan Abubakar of Guarantee Radio Kano said one of the things she learnt was creating strong passwords which has combination of words, numbers and characters. She also narrated that before whenever she browse at commercial centres she used to leave her accounts without login out but now she has discovered the dangers of doing that.
  3. Now I understand fully how dangerous using public WIFI is, before anywhere I see public WIFI as long as there is no password, I quickly connect to it, but with this training and all what has been discussed I will be very careful about using public WIFI said Fibi Kafi of Bauchi State Television Authority.  
  4. With regards to Gender Based Violence Online Female Journalists face in northern Nigeria, Shaharuza Umar Idris Hinna of Amana FM Gombe said this workshop has now widen her understanding of the topic and how to respond to stalkers and those abusers online
  5. On the Bypass networks and Virtual Private Network, Yusuf Ojoma said before when the Nigerian government ban the use of twitter in the country she resort to using every type of VPN she could find, but with this training she understand that not every VPN one could use as some can be spying on users’ devices, this she said she will take to her fellow colleagues who are also using the VPN to bypass the government ban on twitter    

Closing the two day workshop, the Executive Director of CITAD, Malam Yunusa Zakari Ya’u thanked the participants for their commitments throughout the workshop and their passion towards digital inclusion in the country. He went further to state that part of the training curriculum are: 

  1. A five day mentorship training which would be spread over a month, this would be done in order to allow the participants internalised the skills impacted in the first phase and will be guided by a mentor. It is also a stage for the participants to explore in greater depth the topics covered by the first phase. 
  2. Online presentations on certain themes usually of two-hour duration for a total period of 10 hours. Some of the themes to cover are: Safe Communication, Social Network Protection, Digital Hiding, USIGN Signals, Browning using Tor browser, Strategies on how one can protect self-online.
  3. Individual personal experiential presentation. Each participant is expected to make a learning presentation, drawing from personal experience on how they are able to respond to some privacy or other online challenges 
  4. Public awareness activities: The trained Journalists are to organize meetings to raise awareness about safety online among their fellow journalists and CITAD along with the participants will hold a one-day awareness raising activity on safety and privacy online. During this activity, participants will share various campaign messages on social media, hold online seminar on the subject of digital safety.
  5. A step down training by the participants to their fellow journalists in their respective states which will be supported by CITAD 

At the end he urged the participants to utilize the knowledge gain in the training and take the awareness campaign to their various constituencies.




Gender-Based violence is a harmful act being inflicted at individuals based on their gender. This has to do with gender inequality, the abuse of power and harmful norms. GBV is a serious violation of human rights and a life-threatening health and protection issue. Estimates published by WHO indicate that globally one in three women has experienced sexual or physical violence in her life. “Violence against women Prevalence Estimates, 2018”


From the cultural perspective, the practice of gender-based violence is predominant in the world societies, especially developing countries like Nigeria. One of the identifiable forms of GBV is sexual harassment or abuse of children by either their parents or guardians.


These abuses have endangered the lives of many girls in the society and often times led to physical and psychological harms, even death sometimes: GBV therefore remains an obstacle to girls’ education and children development in general.


As part of the effort to curb GBV in the society and to promote the wellbeing of women and girl child, including creating a safe and secure educational environment, the Centre for Information Technology and Development (CITAD) with support from Ford Foundation has been implementing a project titled “Strengthening Citizens Response and Protection Against Gender Based Violence in Kano, Nigeria” whose aim is to Achieve a safe society for women and girls, free from gender violence and discrimination to bridge gender gap in girl child education, allowing for the attainment of gender parity in educational accomplishments  .


This involves stakeholders’ engagement, advocacy, tracking and monitoring of GBV incidences in order to make informed statements. It is for this reason that the organization has instituted a monthly press conference to share information and data relating to GBV in Kano State. The objective of doing this is to create public visibility of this menace and sensitize all stakeholders to take action for addressing it.


Our Efforts:

In tracking incidences of GBV in the state, CITAD has deployed a multi-approach mechanism including:

  1. The use of electronic platforms for people to reports incidences in privacy
  2. The use of monitors in tertiary institutions in the state
  3. Embedded monitors within communities
  4. Cooperation and sharing of data with various agencies such as National Orientation Agency (NOA)
  5. Sensitization activities by trained champions with the communities



The table below shows the breakdown analysis of data collected on the GBV App in the month of September 2021.


Download the table using the link below

GBV Table 114KB

The data above shows that GBV is been perpetrated against both male and female gender with a higher number of female victims within all age ranges in both rural, urban and suburban communities with prevalence in Urban communities. The perpetrators are also of both genders, although with a higher number of male perpetrators. It was also observed that the perpetrators are either family members, teachers/lecturers, student peers or even those that have no relation to the victims.





– Kano State House of Assembly to domesticate the Child Rights Act and VAPP Act at the state level which will contribute in reducing this menace.


– Kano state government to speed up the implementation of Child Right Act in the State as this will help in reducing child abuse in the state


– Religious leaders to use their preaching platforms in creating awareness against GBV in the state


– Traditional leaders both at state and local levels to work with different authorities in curtailing the menace of GBV in the state


– Institutions of higher learning in the state should all develop and implement gender policy and create appropriate mechanisms for victims and others to reports such incidences to the authorities.


– The state government to not only adopt laws to protect women and girls, but also establish referral centres and forensic centres for victims.


– Government and Non-Governmental organizations should intensify activities to promote awareness and advocacy on violence against women.


– Media houses to use their platforms in creating awareness against GBV and be reporting punishments done to perpetrators of GBV instead of GBV cases.



Zainab Aminu

Gender Project Programme Officer




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